Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Derek Weeks, William Schmarzo, Stackify Blog

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Machine Learning

Java IoT: Blog Feed Post

How to Secure REST and JSON

We actually have a lot to offer to secure, monitor and manage REST-style transactions

Here at Layer 7 we get asked a lot about our support for REST.

We actually have a lot to offer to secure, monitor and manage REST-style transactions.

The truth is, although we really like SOAP and XML here at Layer 7, we also really like REST and alternative data encapsulations like JSON.

We use both REST and JSON all the time in our own development.

Suppose you have a REST-based service that you would like to publish to the world, but you are concerned about access control, confidentiality, integrity, and the risk from incoming threats.

We have an answer for this: SecureSpan Gateway clusters, deployed in the DMZ, give you the ability to implement run time governance across all of your services:

Pictures are nice, but this scenario is best understood using a concrete example. For the services, Yahoo’s REST-based search API offers us everything we need–it even returns results in JSON format, instead of XML.

Yahoo has a great tutorial describing how to use this. The tutorial is a little dated, but it’s simple, to the point, and the REST service is still available.

Let’s imagine that I’m deploying a SecureSpan Gateway in front of the servers hosting this API, as I’ve illustrated above. The first thing I will do is create a very simple policy that just implements a reverse proxy. No security yet–just a level of indirection (click on the picture for detail):


This is just about as simple as a policy can get. Notice that the validator is warning me about a few potential issues. It’s pointing out that the transaction will pass arbitrary content, not just XML.

Because I’m expecting JSON formatted data in the response, this is the behavior I expect. The validation is also warning me that this policy has no authentication at all, leaving the service open to general, anonymous access.

We’ll address this in the next step.

I’ve explicitly attached this policy to the gateway URL:

 http://scottssg/yahooImageSearch

If need be, I could easily add wild card characters here to cover a range of incoming URLs. For this demonstration, I’m just running a virtual SecureSpan Gateway here on my Macbook; it’s not actually residing in the Yahoo DMZ, as would be the case in a real deployment. But from the perspective of an administrator building policy, the process is exactly the same regardless of where the gateway lives.

I’ve also placed a restriction on the listener to only accept HTTP GET verbs:

Now I can point my web browser to the gateway URL shown above, and get back a JSON formatted response proxied from Yahoo. I’ll use the same example in the Yahoo tutorial, which lists pictures of Madonna indexed by Yahoo:

http://scottssg:8080/yahooImageSearch?appid=YahooDemo&query=Madonna&output=json

This returns a list looking something like this:

{"ResultSet":{"totalResultsAvailable":"1630990", "totalResultsReturned":10, "firstResultPosition":1, "Result":[{"Title":"madonna jpg", ...

which I’ve truncated a lot because the actual list spans thousands of characters. The Yahoo tutorial must be fairly old; when it was written, there were only 631,000 pictures of the Material Girl. Clearly, her popularity continues unabated.

Now let’s add some security. I’d prefer that nobody on the Internet learns that I’m searching for pictures of Madge, so we need to implement some privacy across the transaction. I can drag-and-drop an SSL/TLS assertion into the top of my policy to ensure that the gateway will only accept SSL connections for this RESTful service. Next, I’ll put in an assertion that checks for credentials using HTTP basic authentication. I’ll use the internal identity provider to validate the username/password combination. The internal identity provider is basically a directory hosted on the SecureSpan Gateway. I could just as connect to an external LDAP, or just about any commercial or open source IAM system. As for authentication, I will restrict use of the yahooImageSearch REST service to members of the development group:

HTTP basic authentication isn’t very sophisticated, so we could easily swap this out and implement pretty much anything else, including certificate authentication, Kerberos, SAML, or whatever satisfies our security requirements. My colleague here at Layer 7, Francois Lascelles, recently wrote an excellent blog post exploring some of the issues associated with REST authentication schemes.

Let’s review what we this simple policy has given us:

  1. Confidentiality, integrity, and server (gateway) authentication
  2. Authentication
  3. Authorization
  4. Virtualization of the internal service, and publication to authorized users

This is good, but I’d like to add some more REST-specific constraints, and to filter out potential REST attacks that may be launched against my service. I can do this with two simple assertions: one that validates form field in HTML, and another that scans the content for various code injection signatures:

The form data assertion allows me to impose a series of tight constraints on the content of query parameters. In effect, it let’s me put a structural schema on an HTTP query string (or POST parameters). I’m going to be very strict here, and explicitly name every parameter I will accept, to the exclusion of all others. For the Yahoo search API, this includes:

  • appid
  • query
  • output
  • callback

The later does some wrapping of the return request to facilitate processing in JavaScript within a browser:

Depending on my security requirements, I could also be rigorous with parameter values using regular expressions as a filter. I’ll leave that as an exercise for the reader.

Naturally, I’m concerned about REST-born threats, so I will configure the code injection assertion to scan for all the usual suspects. This can be tuned so that it’s not doing unnecessary work that might affect performance in a very high volume situation:

That’s it–we’re done. A simple 6 assertion policy that handles confidentiality, integirty, authentication, authorization, schema validation, threat detection, and virtualizatoin of RESTful JSON services. To call this, I’ll again borrow directly from the Yahoo tutorial, using their HTML file and simply change to URL to point to my gateway instead of directly to Yahoo:

<html>
<head>
<title>How Many Pictures Of Madonna Do We Have?</title>
</head>
</body>
<script type="text/javascript">
function ws_results(obj) {
alert(obj.ResultSet.totalResultsAvailable);
}
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="https://scottssg:8443/yahooImageSearch?appid=YahooDemo&query=Madonna&output=json&callback=ws_results"></script>
<body></body>
</html>

Still can’t get over how many pictures of Madonna there are.

I ran it a few times and here’s what it looks like in the dashboard. I threw in some policy failures to liven up the display:

So where can we go from here? Well, I would think about optimization of the policy. Depending on predicted loads and available hardware, we might want to check for code injection and validate the schema before performing authentication, which in the real world would likely call out to an LDAP directory. After all, if we are being fed garbage, there’s no sense in propagating this load to the directory.

We can add SLA constraints across the service to insulate back end hosts from traffic bursts. We could also provide basic load distribution across a farm of multiple service hosts. We might aggregate data from several back-end services using lightweight orchestration, effectively creating new meta-services from existing components.

SecureSpan Gateways provide over 100 assertions that can do just about anything want to an HTTP transaction, regardless of whether it contains XML or JSON data. You can also develop custom assertions which plug into the system and implement new functionality that might be unique to your situation.

Remember: when you are an intermediate, standing in the middle between a client and a service–as is the case with any SecureSpan Gateway–you have complete control over the transaction, and ultimately the use of the service itself.

This has implications that go far beyond simple security, access control, and monitoring.

More Stories By Scott Morrison

K. Scott Morrison is the Chief Technology Officer and Chief Architect at Layer 7 Technologies, where he is leading a team developing the next generation of security infrastructure for cloud computing and SOA. An architect and developer of highly scalable, enterprise systems for over 20 years, Scott has extensive experience across industry sectors as diverse as health, travel and transportation, and financial services. He has been a Director of Architecture and Technology at Infowave Software, a leading maker of wireless security and acceleration software for mobile devices, and was a senior architect at IBM. Before shifting to the private sector, Scott was with the world-renowned medical research program of the University of British Columbia, studying neurodegenerative disorders using medical imaging technology.

Scott is a dynamic, entertaining and highly sought-after speaker. His quotes appear regularly in the media, from the New York Times, to the Huffington Post and the Register. Scott has published over 50 book chapters, magazine articles, and papers in medical, physics, and engineering journals. His work has been acknowledged in the New England Journal of Medicine, and he has published in journals as diverse as the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow, and Neurology. He is the co-author of the graduate text Cloud Computing, Principles, Systems and Applications published by Springer, and is on the editorial board of Springer’s new Journal of Cloud Computing Advances, Systems and Applications (JoCCASA). He co-authored both Java Web Services Unleashed and Professional JMS. Scott is an editor of the WS-I Basic Security Profile (BSP), and is co-author of the original WS-Federation specification. He is a recent co-author of the Cloud Security Alliance’s Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing, and an author of that organization’s Top Threats to Cloud Computing research. Scott was recently a featured speaker for the Privacy Commission of Canada’s public consultation into the privacy implications of cloud computing. He has even lent his expertise to the film and television industry, consulting on a number of features including the X-Files. Scott’s current interests are in cloud computing, Web services security, enterprise architecture and secure mobile computing—and of course, his wife and two great kids.

Layer 7 Technologies: http://www.layer7tech.com
Scott's linkedIn profile.
Twitter: @KScottMorrison
Syscon blog: http://scottmorrison.sys-con.com

@ThingsExpo Stories
In the enterprise today, connected IoT devices are everywhere – both inside and outside corporate environments. The need to identify, manage, control and secure a quickly growing web of connections and outside devices is making the already challenging task of security even more important, and onerous. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Rich Boyer, CISO and Chief Architect for Security at NTT i3, discussed new ways of thinking and the approaches needed to address the emerging challenges of security i...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
SYS-CON Events announced today that GrapeUp, the leading provider of rapid product development at the speed of business, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market acr...
From 2013, NTT Communications has been providing cPaaS service, SkyWay. Its customer’s expectations for leveraging WebRTC technology are not only typical real-time communication use cases such as Web conference, remote education, but also IoT use cases such as remote camera monitoring, smart-glass, and robotic. Because of this, NTT Communications has numerous IoT business use-cases that its customers are developing on top of PaaS. WebRTC will lead IoT businesses to be more innovative and address...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business - from apparel to energy - is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, discussed the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insights from the vast t...
Recently, IoT seems emerging as a solution vehicle for data analytics on real-world scenarios from setting a room temperature setting to predicting a component failure of an aircraft. Compared with developing an application or deploying a cloud service, is an IoT solution unique? If so, how? How does a typical IoT solution architecture consist? And what are the essential components and how are they relevant to each other? How does the security play out? What are the best practices in formulating...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arvind Radhakrishnen discussed how IoT offers new business models in banking and financial services organizations with the capability to revolutionize products, payments, channels, business processes and asset management built on strong architectural foundation. The following topics were covered: How IoT stands to impact various business parameters including customer experience, cost and risk management within BFS organizations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Elastifile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Elastifile Cloud File System (ECFS) is software-defined data infrastructure designed for seamless and efficient management of dynamic workloads across heterogeneous environments. Elastifile provides the architecture needed to optimize your hybrid cloud environment, by facilitating efficient...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
An increasing number of companies are creating products that combine data with analytical capabilities. Running interactive queries on Big Data requires complex architectures to store and query data effectively, typically involving data streams, an choosing efficient file format/database and multiple independent systems that are tied together through custom-engineered pipelines. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Tomer Levi, a senior software engineer at Intel’s Advanced Analytics ...
21st International Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Me...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
There is only one world-class Cloud event on earth, and that is Cloud Expo – which returns to Silicon Valley for the 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center, October 31 - November 2, 2017. Every Global 2000 enterprise in the world is now integrating cloud computing in some form into its IT development and operations. Midsize and small businesses are also migrating to the cloud in increasing numbers. Companies are each developing their unique mix of cloud technologies and service...
WebRTC is great technology to build your own communication tools. It will be even more exciting experience it with advanced devices, such as a 360 Camera, 360 microphone, and a depth sensor camera. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Masashi Ganeko, a manager at INFOCOM Corporation, will introduce two experimental projects from his team and what they learned from them. "Shotoku Tamago" uses the robot audition software HARK to track speakers in 360 video of a remote party. "Virtual Teleport" uses a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Secure Channels, a cybersecurity firm, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Secure Channels, Inc. offers several products and solutions to its many clients, helping them protect critical data from being compromised and access to computer networks from the unauthorized. The company develops comprehensive data encryption security strategie...
Recently, WebRTC has a lot of eyes from market. The use cases of WebRTC are expanding - video chat, online education, online health care etc. Not only for human-to-human communication, but also IoT use cases such as machine to human use cases can be seen recently. One of the typical use-case is remote camera monitoring. With WebRTC, people can have interoperability and flexibility for deploying monitoring service. However, the benefit of WebRTC for IoT is not only its convenience and interopera...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...