|By Mike Rozlog||
|June 27, 2011 12:15 PM EDT||
I've been programming since around 1982, first using an Apple in high school and then finally getting my first computer, the Timex Sinclair 1000 (2k of ROM and 2k of RAM), that same year. Both computers came with a form of the BASIC programming language and it was the start of my lifelong pursuit of trying to understand computers.
A few months ago, one of my good friends called and asked if I had a PowerPoint presentation on the history of programming. When I checked my extensive list of presentations, I noticed that I didn't have one, so that led me on a journey to create a presentation on that very subject.
However, where to start? Maybe 1940 or 1950? After thinking about it for a while I realized that's really not where programming started. You need to go way, way back to really understand the programming concept and where it came from. This led me to envision the world as a dark, almost black place with a small white light in the center... really the only light around was the small white light in the center and that light represented the idea: there has to be a better, more accurate, way to count and keep track of things for commerce.
To be honest, programming really starts back around 2500 B.C. with the introduction of the Abacus. It was the first mechanical calculator that had more capabilities than most people realize. Did you know that the Abacus was used to help the blind count? I guess it could be said that it was the first 508-compliant device, and it was also used to explain things like ASCII that came many years later.
I know what you're thinking - that this is "hardware" not "software," which is 100% correct, but it's also the start of thinking and implementing in a mechanized fashion. Remember, the use of zero (0) was not introduced for another 2000 years, binary was still 2200 years away and almost 2400 years away from having a mechanical machine to predict astronomical events such as eclipses.
It took many years after that to get things like a machine to do control sequences (60 AD), the first real program, the first Cryptography (850 AD), the first security, the first mechanized mechanical calculator (1640 AD) from Blasé Pascal, and the first use of punch cards (1725 AD) for use with looms.
As history points out, there were a lot of things that had to happen to get us to the point where we could start thinking of the concept of "programming." This concept of "programming" was really nothing more than the idea of a repeatable process for counting and manufacturing.
This lead to Charles Babbage's "Analytical Machine," which was a huge, and I mean monumental, leap of what was before and what would come after. Many books and articles have been written on the Babbage machine, but a few reminders are in order:
- Used a concept of a program
- Had read-only memory
- Had the concept of a CPU
- Used a form of punch cards
- Could do conditional jumps
- Would be powered by steam
This change was on the order of going from black and white television to the high definition, millions of colors, televisions of today. The only problem was the machine never worked! However, the thoughts of where it could go sparked a revolution in ideas around such machines.
The great philosopher Plato said it best; "Necessity... is the mother of invention." No truer statement was applied when in 1880 the U.S. Census needed a better way to count the population of the U.S. At that time, it took seven years to complete the counting for that Census and it was predicted that it would take over 10 years to count the next one. The problem was the U.S. Census is supposed to happen every 10 years, hence the problem.
The Census department held a contest to find a better method of counting and it was won by an employee called "Herman Hollerith" who went on to create the Tabulating Machine Company, which later became known as IBM. Now back to the 1880 Census. It counted the 62,622,250 people with the famous line: "finished months ahead of schedule and under budget." The idea for the punch cards that were used came not from history or the loom, but from the observation of railroad conductors who categorized passengers with a code when they punched the ticket.
The Birth of Programming
Things continued to progress with the German Z3 in 1943 that could do three to four additions per second. Then along came the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, which was a massive machine that was 51 feet long, weighed about five tons, and was made up of 750,000 parts. What kind of processing power did you get from this machine you may ask? It could handle numbers up to 23 digits with a plus sign and could process more than three or four add or subtracts per second, it could multiply in six seconds, divide in 15 seconds, and could do a logarithm or trig function in just over a minute, and by the by, this was all done on 24 column paper tape.
Finally in 1946, a real speed breakthrough occurred in processing with the ENIAC, which could do 5,000 simple add or subtracts per second. It could do real processing like Loops, Branches, and Subroutines and was programmed by six women moving cables and manipulating switches, and was one of the first machines to offer a debug process for a "single step" process.
The Dawn of Modern Programming
We started to get machine language that could be executed with switches and levers, but then came the dawn of SOAP. I'm not exactly talking about today's concept of SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), I'm talking about 1957's SOAP, and you know the one, Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program. While not as hip as today's SOAP, the 1957 version did add a lot for the programming world. Things like remembering numeric codes and addresses, large programs, and Assemblers are still used today; think about the Java JVM for example, which is written almost entirely in Assembler.
Around the same time as SOAP, a new language from IBM came onto the scene - Formula Translation or FORTRAN as it became known. This was really the first "general-purpose" language to hit the market. It was designed for numeric and scientific computing, but it could do a lot more and did. Today, Fortran 2008 (capitalization was removed in a later language specification) is the latest standard and still widely used, and it has influenced other, more modern languages used today, many that you most likely use from time to time.
Next came the dinosaur of languages, not because it's old, or extinct, but because it was and still is a giant when it comes to the number of people who have been exposed to it. I can only be writing about COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language). Developed by IBM, the U.S. Government, and many others, this became the standard language used by businesses around the world. It's estimated that over a quarter of a trillion lines of COBOL are still in production today.
The Great Expanse in Software Language
The 1960s, from both general historical and a computer science point of view, were a radical time. New computer languages were being developed at a record pace. Take for example ALGOL, which spawned other languages such as B, Pascal, C, and Haskell. New thoughts like the introduction of Scripting languages like PL/1 that led to REXX and to the first DSL (Domain Specific Language) RPG for report generation were all new approaches to programming.
A culmination of things learned were put into a general programming language called BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), which ironically was way ahead of its time by releasing the compiler for free. It was also the first language to really be "snobbed" by the highly respected computer professionals around its approach to many things, with the biggest offense being the use of the GOTO statement.
Most likely the biggest addition to computer programming came in 1967 with the invention of Object-Oriented (OO) programming. OO programming was introduced with Simula, which introduced concepts of Objects, Classes, virtual methods, garbage collection, and many others. It took a very large step in helping abstract the complexities of the world into known items and simplified system decomposition. This paradigm alone is responsible for the most popular language in use today, C++. Thinking about C++, just how many other similar languages and constructs were invented or introduced?
There are many great languages that were introduced over the next couple of decades, languages that many of us use day-in and day-out. Some caught on while others faded into obscurity. But it should be said that with the advent of development environments or IDEs, more code was written and generated and generally allowed the programmer using an environment to flourish. We are currently at a low-point for IDEs, but this too will most likely pass as new environments are introduced to remove or, at a very minimum, reduce the amount of code that needs to be written for the demanding customers of today.
Of course with the advent of Visual Basic, Delphi, C++, and Java, the world became a much easier place in which to program. Remember before Java, and way before .NET, the world was a much more diverse place in regards to programming languages. I have trade magazines from the early '90s where the discussion wasn't on Java or .NET but on the fastest compiler, the best GUIs, the best way to scale software. It was a different time.
The Land of the Mixers
Welcome to the land of mixers... what are mixers you might ask? Today we live in a world where one programming paradigm is not good enough for us to do our jobs. To be honest, there really has not been a new idea in programming since the early 1970s.
Most of the ideas were already thought of back in the 1960s. For a language to "catch" on today it has to, at a minimum, give a nod to the past or it will be labeled extreme and it needs to be somewhat familiar or it won't be understood. So languages like PHP, Ruby, Erlang, F#, and even GO really don't do anything that new or special.
I proclaim the current time, the land of mixers, because instead of coming up with something new, we now add from all different languages to create a new language. My current favorite example of a mixer language is Falcon (http://www.falconpl.org/). It states it is the following:
...an Open Source, simple, fast and powerful programming language, easy to learn and to feel comfortable with, and a scripting engine ready to empower mission-critical multithreaded applications.
Falcon provides six integrated programming paradigms: procedural, object oriented, prototype oriented, functional, tabular and message oriented. And you don't have to master all of them; you just need to pick the ingredients you prefer, and let the code to follow your inspiration.
Wow, I could not have said it better myself. Falcon is a true mixer language. There are dozens of other languages just like Falcon and many have less constraints, and Falcon has very few. On the one hand I can program any way I like, on the other I can program any way I like and that may not be good for the next person who will become responsible for my code someday. So this invariably leads to the next question...
Maybe a language that's different and based on Computational Theory is next, or maybe something completely off the wall is right around the corner and will change the way we develop software, change the way we think about software or maybe it will be another repackaging of the same things we do in other languages, just presented differently.
For over the past 50 years, we have been rehashing the same ideas over and over. Requirements are not shrinking and customer expectations are not withering, so whatever language you choose to complete a project, make sure you like it and it gets the job done.
Due to the size limitation of this piece, I had to leave out a lot of other languages. Some really cool ones, some really boring ones, and some I totally forgot to include. Keep an eye out as I plan on taking the presentation on the road to a conference here or there to get feedback, and most likely a recording of the full presentation in the future. I'm sure I forgot your favorite language, or I need to drop one of mine, but one thing is for sure, the history of programming is always morphing and that makes things really interesting.
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
Oct. 22, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 457
Established in 1998, Calsoft is a leading software product engineering Services Company specializing in Storage, Networking, Virtualization and Cloud business verticals. Calsoft provides End-to-End Product Development, Quality Assurance Sustenance, Solution Engineering and Professional Services expertise to assist customers in achieving their product development and business goals. The company's deep domain knowledge of Storage, Virtualization, Networking and Cloud verticals helps in delivering ...
Oct. 22, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 956
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Oct. 22, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,578
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Oct. 22, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,645
In the next five to ten years, millions, if not billions of things will become smarter. This smartness goes beyond connected things in our homes like the fridge, thermostat and fancy lighting, and into heavily regulated industries including aerospace, pharmaceutical/medical devices and energy. “Smartness” will embed itself within individual products that are part of our daily lives. We will engage with smart products - learning from them, informing them, and communicating with them. Smart produc...
Oct. 22, 2016 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,440
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Oct. 22, 2016 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 630
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, will discuss the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docke...
Oct. 22, 2016 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,241
WebRTC sits at the intersection between VoIP and the Web. As such, it poses some interesting challenges for those developing services on top of it, but also for those who need to test and monitor these services. In his session at WebRTC Summit, Tsahi Levent-Levi, co-founder of testRTC, reviewed the various challenges posed by WebRTC when it comes to testing and monitoring and on ways to overcome them.
Oct. 22, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,882
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Oct. 22, 2016 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 5,219
SYS-CON Events announced today that Coalfire will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Coalfire is the trusted leader in cybersecurity risk management and compliance services. Coalfire integrates advisory and technical assessments and recommendations to the corporate directors, executives, boards, and IT organizations for global brands and organizations in the technology, cloud, health...
Oct. 22, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,495
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
Oct. 22, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 11,262
The Internet of Things (IoT), in all its myriad manifestations, has great potential. Much of that potential comes from the evolving data management and analytic (DMA) technologies and processes that allow us to gain insight from all of the IoT data that can be generated and gathered. This potential may never be met as those data sets are tied to specific industry verticals and single markets, with no clear way to use IoT data and sensor analytics to fulfill the hype being given the IoT today.
Oct. 22, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,323
SYS-CON Events announced today that Transparent Cloud Computing (T-Cloud) Consortium will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Transparent Cloud Computing Consortium (T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data proces...
Oct. 22, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,269
SYS-CON Events announced today that MathFreeOn will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MathFreeOn is Software as a Service (SaaS) used in Engineering and Math education. Write scripts and solve math problems online. MathFreeOn provides online courses for beginners or amateurs who have difficulties in writing scripts. In accordance with various mathematical topics, there are more tha...
Oct. 22, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 923
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential Internet of Things Brand by Onalytica in the ‘The Internet of Things Landscape 2015: Top 100 Individuals and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed Twitter conversations around the #IoT debate to uncover the most influential brands and individuals driving the conversation. Onalytica captured data from 56,224 users. The PageRank based methodology they use to extract influencers on a particular topic (tweets mentioning #InternetofThings or #IoT in this ...
Oct. 22, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 8,270
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftNet Solutions will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftNet Solutions specializes in Enterprise Solutions for Hadoop and Big Data. It offers customers the most open, robust, and value-conscious portfolio of solutions, services, and tools for the shortest route to success with Big Data. The unique differentiator is the ability to architect and ...
Oct. 22, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 587
SYS-CON Events announced today that Niagara Networks will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Niagara Networks offers the highest port-density systems, and the most complete Next-Generation Network Visibility systems including Network Packet Brokers, Bypass Switches, and Network TAPs.
Oct. 22, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,275
SYS-CON Events announced today that Embotics, the cloud automation company, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Embotics is the cloud automation company for IT organizations and service providers that need to improve provisioning or enable self-service capabilities. With a relentless focus on delivering a premier user experience and unmatched customer support, Embotics is the fas...
Oct. 22, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 745
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Oct. 22, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,422
Virgil consists of an open-source encryption library, which implements Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) (including RSA schema), a Key Management API, and a cloud-based Key Management Service (Virgil Keys). The Virgil Keys Service consists of a public key service and a private key escrow service.
Oct. 22, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 952