|By Marc Chanliau||
|August 25, 2011 10:15 AM EDT||
The recent spike in insider threats, coupled with a rise in compliance considerations, has forced organizations to ensure only authorized users access sensitive application functionality and data. Historically, user entitlements or authorization logic has been embedded inside an application. For example, if the user of an application meets specific conditions, such as a specific role, access to that application function will be granted at runtime. But if the definition of specific authorization conditions changes over time, then the application developer needs to modify the application's source code, test, and re-deploy the application.
Suppose a homegrown portal application must present a sensitive piece of customer information such as a Social Security Number (SSN) when a service representative views a customer's profile. It is determined that in order to ensure compliance with various privacy regulations, only directors and senior managers may be able to view a customer's SSN. A decision has to be dynamically made whenever the application must show an SSN as to whether the current user may view the actual data or some default value (e.g., "XXX-XX-XXXX"). The decision must take into account the user's job title. A dozen parts of the application that can display a customer's SSN mean a dozen places for this business logic to be applied.
Now assume that the policy needs to be changed after the application has been in production for some time. The business has determined that senior managers in California may not view an SSN. This is an exceptional situation that requires another piece of information to be considered as part of the entitlement decision. But what if we take the example even further? Suppose that only directors above a certain salary grade can view SSNs. Now the entitlement logic has been split into multiple decisions based on runtime attributes. So the business logic must be adapted.
You can see that authorization or entitlement policies evolve very differently from application requirements. Having the entitlement logic "hard wired" into the business logic means changing code each time there is a policy change. A lot of organizations also outsource their application development, which means often times they don't own the code that handles the business logic directly. This can lead to further inefficiencies and delays in deploying changes in policies. If we keep the entitlement policies outside of the application, they can be changed without modifying the application.
In this article, we explore a new approach designed to externalize user entitlements from applications through the use of a dedicated access control solution for the application tier. Externalized entitlements mean separating fine-grained authorization logic from business logic. One benefit of this is transparency; the entitlements are now understandable and measurable beyond the context of the application. This is important so that a company may review their entitlement policies for completeness and accuracy against corporate standards.
Roles and Entitlements
Authentication is about validating a user's identity through the use of credentials such as a password, a security card, or a digital certificate. Authorization (or "access control") is the ability to provide an authenticated user access to specific operations of an application.
Authorization is based on the concept of a "role." A role defines what a user is entitled to do. For example, a user in a "broker" role is entitled to transact goods on behalf of others. A role can have qualifying attributes (e.g., seniority, ranking) and can support constraints (e.g., a broker may only start transactions under specific circumstances). Based on his/her role, a user is granted access to specific resources necessary to fill that role.
There are two main kinds of roles: Applications Roles and External Roles. An Applications Role is a collection of users, groups, and other Application Roles; it can be assigned to an enterprise user, group, or External Role in an identity store, or another Application Role in the policy store (see Figure 1). An External Role is the same as an Enterprise Role or Enterprise Group; it's typically implemented as an LDAP group in the identity store.
Application Roles can be many-to-many mapped to External Roles. For example, the external group "employee" (stored in an LDAP-based identity store) can be mapped to the Application Role "customer_support_member" defined in one application and to the Application Role "IT_member" defined in another application.
An Entitlement groups related resources, possibly of different types, needed to perform a business function. In effect, an Entitlement is a reusable collection of access rights that can be granted to multiple principals (users or applications such as web services).
Role-Based and Attribute-Based Access Control
Role-Based Access Control or RBAC, originally defined by NIST , formalizes a reference model for controlling access to resources where permissions are not directly associated to users but are defined in roles. The RBAC standard specifies a core set (administrative and system functions) and additional functionality including role hierarchies, constraints, and separation of duty (i.e., "defining a role" and "assigning a role" are separated).
Enterprise RBAC extends RBAC principles to enterprise roles. In addition, Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), a natural evolution of RBAC, uses attributes (e.g., social security number or IP address) to define access control rules and access requests (XACML  is an example of an ABAC framework). An ABAC policy specifies one or more claims that need to be satisfied before a user is granted access, for example, the user must be a certain age.
Fine-Grained Authorization Model
In a typical XACML-based authorization model, the administrator first defines policies at the Policy Administration Point (PAP), essentially a console allowing policy definition, selection, and attachment. Then attempted access to a protected resource (for example a web service request) is intercepted by a Policy Enforcement Point (PEP), which parses the request and leverages a Policy Decision Point (PDP) to determine whether the request should be granted or denied. The PEP / PDP combination relies on a Policy Information Point (PIP), generally a user directory, to fetch information relevant to the requester for the policy evaluation and policy decision process.
All the access control information required to make the application secure is separate from the application logic and is persisted as modifiable metadata (mostly XML files) packaged with the application.
Fine-Grained Authorization Solutions
A centralized access control solution offers the reuse of authentication and authorization services as well as easier reporting for compliance and regulatory requirements, allowing administrators to control multiple applications through a higher level of granularity.
Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application servers provide container security including authorization based on roles. Developers can isolate security code from their business logic and delegate security to the application server infrastructure. However, application server authorization doesn't scale well to the fine-grained access control needs of multiple enterprise applications. A dedicated fine-grained authorization engine is required to complement the functionality provided by the application server.
Introducing Entitlements Server Technology
As previously noted, entitlements are a corollary of roles: being in a specific role entitles you to specific resources. Entitlements are tied to the application as they drive runtime permissions.
Entitlements management enables organizations to define granular access controls for their users based on the attributes of the user, the resource, and the context of the request.
An Entitlements Server is a standalone fine-grained authorization application that allows an organization to protect its resources by defining and managing policies that control access to, and usage of, these resources. Access privileges are defined in a policy by specifying who can do what to which resource, when it can be done, and how. The policy can enforce controls on all types of resources including software components (e.g., URLs, servlets, JavaServer Pages [JSPs], or EJBs used to construct an application), and business objects (e.g., representations of user accounts, personal profiles and contracts such as bank accounts in a banking application, patient records in a health care application, or anything used to define a business relationship).
An Entitlements Server supports the creation of role policies and access control policies. Role policies are used to define constraints regarding which users are assigned roles. Access control policies define access to the software components and business objects mentioned earlier.
An Entitlements Server typically performs the following functionality:
- Separates security decision making from application logic.
- Distributes policies from the PAP to the PDPs.
- Caches policies and authorization decisions for performance.
- Updates security policies at runtime.
- Offers a flexible architecture that supports both embedded and remote PDPs (for centralized or distributed policy decisions).
- Audits all access decisions and management operations.
- Supports the XACML request / response protocol for authorization inquiries by a client application.
- Integrates with existing security and identity management systems by leveraging enterprise data in relational databases and LDAP directories.
An Entitlements Server comprises centralized policy management with centralized or distributed policy decision-making. The architecture of an Entitlements Server is based on the interaction model of entities presented in the XACML specifications.
Entitlements Server Components
A typical Entitlements Server implements the XACML-based authorization model described earlier, including a PAP, which makes rules and policies available to the PDP in order for that entity to reach a grant or deny decision for a request to access the protected resource. The PAP generally includes an administration console, management application programming interfaces (APIs) dealing with resource and role catalogs, authorization and role- mapping policies, as well as management command-line utilities.
When the Entitlements Server is deployed, a PDP receives a request for authorization, evaluates the request based on applicable policies, reaches a decision and returns the decision to the PEP, the entity thatfirst made the authorization call. The PDP can also retrieve additional subject, resource, action, and environment attributes from a Policy Information Point to add contextual information to the request.
The PEP is a software component that intercepts the request to the protected application, passes it to the PDP and enforces the security decision returned from the PDP (the PDP may also return information with the decision [referred to as an "obligation"] that allows that decision to be enforced within a particular context). The PEP component can be the protected application itself or a "security module."
The Entitlements Server may offer two types of security modules. One type acts purely as a PDP by receiving requests and reaching decisions. The other type combines the PDP and PEP functionality. Security modules can accommodate various operating environments such as Java and Microsoft .NET applications.
The Attribute Authorities component illustrated in Figure 1 is in effect the PIP. Attribute retrievers are available for LDAP and relational database data sources.
Advanced Entitlements Servers implement the PEP Decision API, a part of the OpenAZ framework . The OpenAZ package provides access from a PEP to a remote or embedded PDP.
Entitlements Server Policies
An Entitlements Server may support the creation of authorization policies and mapping policies. An Authorization Policy is created to return a decision ("grant" or "deny") as a result of a request for access to a protected target resource. The decision is based on the profile of the requesting principal (e.g., a user). An Authorization Policy is applicable to a request for access if the parameters in the request match those specified in the policy.
Consider this policy syntax:
GRANT the Support_Manager_East role MODIFY access to the Incidents servlet if the request is made from an IP address of 100.100.20.20
This Authorization Policy grants any user that is a member of the Support_Manager_East role access to the Incidents servlet for the purpose of modifying it. The policy is also constrained by a condition: the request must be made from IP address 100.100.20.20. Thus, if the parameters in the request match the parameters in the policy, and the request is made from IP address 100.100.20.20, the request is granted, otherwise the policy is ignored.
A Role Mapping Policy allows you to dynamically assign (grant) role membership to a user or dynamically deny (revoke) role membership from a user. A Role Mapping Policy defines which users or External Roles are mapped to an Authorization Policy. Role Mapping Policies are written to define which subjects (user and external roles) are assigned to the applicable role. They may also include conditions, i.e., constraints that must be evaluated to true for the policy to be included in the authorization decision.
Consider the following policy syntax:
GRANT the Employee group Application Role Support_Manager_East if the request is made from an IP address of 100.100.20.20
This policy grants the Application Role Support_Manager_East to any user that is a member of the group Employee. The policy is constrained by a condition: the request must be made from IP address 100.100.20.20. Thus, if the parameters in the request match the parameters in the Role Mapping Policy, and the request is made from IP address 100.100.20.20, the Application Role is granted otherwise the Role Mapping Policy is ignored.
An Entitlements Server allows enterprises to externalize fine-grained authorization from an application's logic, thus allowing developers to focus on business logic and leave fine-grained authorization decisions to security administrators.
- NIST: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer Security Division (CSD) provides standards to protect information systems against threats to the confidentiality and integrity of corporate information.
- XACML: The Access Control Markup Language (XACML) describes a policy language (general access control requirements) and an access control decision request / response language. The RBAC Profile of XACML specification defines a profile for the use of XACML in expressing policies that use role-based access control (RBAC). In this case, RBAC "roles" are expressed as XACML Subject Attributes. For example, a specific XACML Permission PolicySet contains the permissions associated with the RBAC Manager role.
- OpenAZ: The Open Authorization API (OpenAZ) provides a standard interface between an application and a general authorization service. It also provides an effective way to enable authorization providers to plug in client-side authorization functionality.
- Oracle Entitlements Server: Oracle Entitlements Server (OES) is a fine-grained authorization management solution that externalizes and centralizes administration of enterprise entitlements, simplifies authorization policies, and enforces security decisions in distributed, heterogeneous applications.
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
May. 22, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,310
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
May. 22, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,298
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
May. 22, 2015 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,980
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
May. 22, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 6,588
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
May. 22, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,250
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
May. 22, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 6,190
Grow your business with enterprise wearable apps using SAP Platforms and Google Glass. SAP and Google just launched the SAP and Google Glass Challenge, an opportunity for you to innovate and develop the best Enterprise Wearable App using SAP Platforms and Google Glass and gain valuable market exposure. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian McPhail, Senior Director of Business Development, ISVs & Digital Commerce at SAP, outlined the timeline of the SAP Google Glass Challenge and the opportunity for developers, start-ups, and companies of all sizes to engage with SAP today.
May. 22, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,856
DevOps tends to focus on the relationship between Dev and Ops, putting an emphasis on the ops and application infrastructure. But that’s changing with microservices architectures. In her session at DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks, will focus on how microservices are changing the underlying architectures needed to scale, secure and deliver applications based on highly distributed (micro) services and why that means an expansion into “the network” for DevOps.
May. 22, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,806
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo – to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY – is now accepting Hackathon proposals. Hackathon sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem. At Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley, IBM held the Bluemix Developer Playground on November 5 and ElasticBox held the DevOps Hackathon on November 6. Both events took place on the expo floor. The Bluemix Developer Playground, for developers of all levels, highlighted the ease of use of...
May. 22, 2015 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,204
We’re no longer looking to the future for the IoT wave. It’s no longer a distant dream but a reality that has arrived. It’s now time to make sure the industry is in alignment to meet the IoT growing pains – cooperate and collaborate as well as innovate. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, will examine the key ingredients to IoT success and identify solutions to challenges the industry is facing. The deep industry expertise behind this presentation will provide attendees with a leading edge view of rapidly emerging IoT oppor...
May. 22, 2015 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,797
For years, we’ve relied too heavily on individual network functions or simplistic cloud controllers. However, they are no longer enough for today’s modern cloud data center. Businesses need a comprehensive platform architecture in order to deliver a complete networking suite for IoT environment based on OpenStack. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dhiraj Sehgal from PLUMgrid will discuss what a holistic networking solution should really entail, and how to build a complete platform that is scalable, secure, agile and automated.
May. 22, 2015 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,173
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built to optimize Microsoft workloads, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Gridstore™ is the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built for Microsoft workloads and designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Gridstore’s hyper-converged infrastructure is the industry’s first all flash version of HyperConverged Appliances that include both compute and storag...
May. 22, 2015 01:15 AM EDT Reads: 6,117
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
May. 22, 2015 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 5,069
Hadoop as a Service (as offered by handful of niche vendors now) is a cloud computing solution that makes medium and large-scale data processing accessible, easy, fast and inexpensive. In his session at Big Data Expo, Kumar Ramamurthy, Vice President and Chief Technologist, EIM & Big Data, at Virtusa, will discuss how this is achieved by eliminating the operational challenges of running Hadoop, so one can focus on business growth. The fragmented Hadoop distribution world and various PaaS solutions that provide a Hadoop flavor either make choices for customers very flexible in the name of opti...
May. 22, 2015 12:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,622
In the consumer IoT, everything is new, and the IT world of bits and bytes holds sway. But industrial and commercial realms encompass operational technology (OT) that has been around for 25 or 50 years. This grittier, pre-IP, more hands-on world has much to gain from Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications and principles. But adding sensors and wireless connectivity won’t work in environments that demand unwavering reliability and performance. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ron Sege, CEO of Echelon, will discuss how as enterprise IT embraces other IoT-related technology trends, enterprises with i...
May. 22, 2015 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,138
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
May. 21, 2015 11:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,466
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have s...
May. 21, 2015 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,917
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo, June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be
May. 21, 2015 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,760
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Kaplan, Managing Director of THINKstrategies, will examine why IT must finally fulfill its role in support of its SBUs or face a new round of...
May. 21, 2015 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,275
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
May. 21, 2015 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,022