Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Derek Weeks, Liz McMillan, Automic Blog, Karthick Viswanathan, Stackify Blog

Related Topics: Java IoT, Machine Learning

Java IoT: Article

New Features in JavaServer Faces 2.0

Developing server-side user interfaces (UI) for Java EE applications

JavaServer Faces (JSF) technology is used for developing server-side user interfaces (UI) for Java EE applications. JSF 2.0 architecture has introduced several new features, most of which we shall discuss in this article. The salient new features in JSF 2.0 are State Saving, Facelets, Navigation, Validations, Scopes, AJAX, Resource Handling, Composite Components, View Params, Client Behaviors, Event Handling, and Exception Handling.

State Saving
In JSF 1.2 the full component tree is saved/restored. Attributes are also stored and restored. Saving and restoring the full state has performance and memory issues as the complete state has to be saved and restored and the size of the state saved could be large. In JSF 1.2 each UIComponent saves/restores its own state in the component hierarchy using saveState and resoreState methods in StateHolder. If state saving were to be optimized, it would have to be added to each component class in the hierarchy.

JSF 2.0 has introduced partial state saving in which the initial state of the component tree is marked and only the delta state changes due to modifications are saved, which makes the size of the state saved small. Re-executing the view and subsequently updating with the saved delta state change restores the component tree. Instead of implementing the StateHolder interface, components in JSF 2.0 implement the PartialStateHolder interface, which provides the partial state feature. PartialStateHolder provides methods shown in Table 1.

Table 1

To make it easier for UIComponents to implement PartialSatetHolder the StateHelper, which is a Map-like interface with methods such as add, eval, get, put, remove, is provided to store a component's state such as attributes and listeners. Partial state saving makes the size of the state saved about four times smaller. As the state is restored by re-executing the view, restoring of the component tree could take more time than in JSF 1.2.

By default, JSF 2.0 uses partial state saving. The javax.faces.PARTIAL_STATE_SAVING context-param is provided turn off/on partial state saving. The partial state saving param may be changed using the PARTIAL_STATE_SAVING_PARAM_NAME param.

To implement state saving, JSF 2.0 has introduced tree visiting. In JSF 1.2 only one component could be invoked in a single tree traversal using the UIComponent.invokeOnComponent() method. If multiple components are required to be invoked as in an AJAX request or state saving, multiple tree traversals have to applied. With the tree visiting, multiple components may be invoked in a single tree traversal. Tree visiting is implemented using the visitTree(VisitContext context,VisitCallback callback) method. VisitContext is a context object that holds state for component tree visit. VisitCallback is an interface to visit a specified UIComponent in tree visit.

Facelets
JSF 1.2 used the JSP view technology. JSF 2.0 uses the Facelets view definition language (VDL) as the default view rendering technology. Facelets is an extension to JavaServer Faces (JSF) and uses XHTML syntax to define a JSF page. Facelets are XHTML pages and by default use the .xhtml extension. The default Facelets suffix is specified by the DEFAULT_FACELETS_SUFFIX context parameter. The Facelets view handler in JSF 1.2 had to be specified in faces-config.xml with the following configuration:

<application>|
<view-handler>com.sun.facelets.FaceletViewHandler</view-handler>
</application>
</faces-config>

In JSF 2.0 a view handler is not configured and the default view handler javax.faces.application.ViewHandler is used. The default faces-config.xml for Facelets in JSF 2.0 is an empty file. The default value of the DEFAULT_FACELETS_SUFFIX constant in the ViewHandler view handler is .xhtml. Other Facelets view mappings(view pages to be interpreted as Facelets) may be specified using the javax.faces.FACELETS_VIEW_MAPPINGS context parameter:

<context-param>
<param-name>javax.faces.FACELETS_VIEW_MAPPINGS</param-name>
<param-value>*.jsf;*.jspx</param-value>
</context-param>

Navigation
Navigation in JSF 1.2 is configured using navigation rules based on outcomes from a view id in faces-config.xml. For example, to navigate to output.jsp if the outcome from input.jsp is "success" and to navigate to error.jsp if the outcome is "error", specify the following navigation rule in faces-config.xml:

<navigation-rule>
<from-view-id>/input.jsp</from-view-id>
<navigation-case>
<from-outcome>success</from-outcome>
<to-view-id>/output.jsp</to-view-id>
</navigation-case>
<navigation-case>
<from-outcome>error</from-outcome>
<to-view-id>/error.jsp</to-view-id>
</navigation-case>
</navigation-rule>

JSF 2.0 has simplified navigation with the introduction of implicit navigation with which the navigation is based on the outcome. Implicitly the JSF application navigates to a view id with the same name as the outcome. For example, if the outcome is "output", the navigation handler navigates to output.xhtml, if provided. JSF 2.0 has also introduced conditional navigation with which the navigation handler navigates to a view id based on a condition EL expression specified in faces-config.xml. JSF 2.0 has also introduced the ConfigurableNavigationHandler class for configuring navigation programmatically. Preemptive navigation is another new feature used to determine the destination URL based on outcome. The new components h:button and h:link support preemptive navigation.

Validation
Validation in JSF 1.2 is implemented using built-in validators f:validateDoubleRange (for a double value with an optional range), f:validateLongRange(a long value with an optional range), and f:validateLength (a String with a minimum and maximum number of characters). JSF 1.2 also supports custom validators with the f:validator tag and the javax.faces.validator.Validator interface. JSF 1.2 did not have built-in provisions for empty field validation and validation with regular expressions.

JSF 2.0 has introduced validation of empty fields, which is also available for custom validators. Three new built-in validators have been added: f:validateRegex for regular expressions, f:validateRequired for required field, and f:validateBean for Bean validation, which is another new feature. Bean validation is implemented in conjunction with validation constrain annotations, which are defined in the javax.validation.constraints package. Validation constraint annotations annotate managed bean properties. For example the @Size annotation constrains size, and the @Pattern annotation requires conformance with a regular expression. Bean validation is supported with custom validators also.

Scopes and Configuration
As mentioned earlier the faces-config.xml in JSF 2.0 is an empty file. JSF 1.2 faces-config.xml has configuration for managed beans, managed bean properties, scopes, validators, converters, and renderers. JSF 2.0 has introduced annotations-based configuration for managed beans, managed bean properties, scopes, validators, converters, and renderers. New scopes: view, flash, and custom have been added for finer-grained scopes. JSF 2.0 has added a new configuration project stage that indicates the state of a project.

AJAX
JSF 1.2 did not provide built-in support for AJAX, and an AJAX framework such as Ajax4jsf had to be used. Or AJAX had to be implemented with the XMLHttpRequest object without any framework. JSF 2.0 has added support for AJAX with the f:ajax tag, which includes support for partial page rendering and grouped components. AJAX support may also be added using the AJAX JSF library.

Resource Handling
Resources are files required by a JSF application such as CSS, JavaScript, and images. JSF 2.0 has added a ResourceHandler API that is based on path-based packaging conventions for serving resources. JSF 2.0 has also added new tags for resource handling; h:head, h:body, h:outputScript, and h:ouputStylesheet. Some of the other new resource handling features are relocating resources and ordering of multiple faces-config.xml application configuration resources.

Composite Components
JSF 2.0 has introduced a Composite Components tag library for creating composite components. A Composite component is a composite (collection) of other UI components. A composite component consists of a library, which makes use of the new resource handling feature, a definition page, and a using page, which are based on Facelets. A definition page defines a composite component and a using page makes use of a composite component.

View Params
JSF 1.2 includes support for sending parameters only in a POST request. View parameters add the provision to send request parameters in a GET request. View parameters are configured in the f:metadata tag using the f:viewParam tags. View params are EditableValueHolder components and may configured with validators and converters just as other EditableValueHolder components such as h:inputText. View parameters also support component system events using the f:event tag. Preemptive navigation, which was mentioned in the Navigation section, and bookmarking is made feasible with view params. View params may also be used with Faces redirects.

Client Behaviors
Behaviors are objects attached to components to provide additional functionality. Client behaviors are an implementation of behaviors with which scripts may be attached with components to be run from client-side events. A Facelet taglib is required for a client behavior. Client behaviors are added to a Facelets page using tags from the Facelets taglib.

Event Handling and Exception Handling
JSF 2.0 has introduced a new type of events called system events. System events are of two types: application scoped system events and component system events. System events are similar to, but with more precise granularity, to phase events. For event handling in an AJAX request the f:ajax tag includes a onevent attribute to register a callback Java Script function.

ExceptionHandler is a new class to handle unexpected exceptions. The f:ajax tag includes a onerror attribute for error handling callback function.

More Stories By Deepak Vohra

Deepak Vohra is a Sun Certified Java 1.4 Programmer and a Web developer.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
WebRTC is great technology to build your own communication tools. It will be even more exciting experience it with advanced devices, such as a 360 Camera, 360 microphone, and a depth sensor camera. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Masashi Ganeko, a manager at INFOCOM Corporation, will introduce two experimental projects from his team and what they learned from them. "Shotoku Tamago" uses the robot audition software HARK to track speakers in 360 video of a remote party. "Virtual Teleport" uses a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera offers a radically new approach to data management, where innovative software makes data infrastructure invisible, elastic and able to perform at the highest level. It eliminates hardware lock-in and gives IT organizations the choice to source x86 server nodes, with business model option...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
With 10 simultaneous tracks, keynotes, general sessions and targeted breakout classes, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo are two of the most important technology events of the year. Since its launch over eight years ago, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo have presented a rock star faculty as well as showcased hundreds of sponsors and exhibitors! In this blog post, I provide 7 tips on how, as part of our world-class faculty, you can deliver one of the most popular sessions at our events. But before reading the...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Carl J. Levine, Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1, will objectively discuss how DNS is used to solve Digital Transformation challenges in large SaaS applications, CDNs, AdTech platforms, and other demanding use cases. Carl J. Levine is the Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1. A veteran of the Internet Infrastructure space, he has over a decade of experience with startups, networking protocols and Internet infrastructure, combined with the unique ability to it...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business - from apparel to energy - is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Elastifile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Elastifile Cloud File System (ECFS) is software-defined data infrastructure designed for seamless and efficient management of dynamic workloads across heterogeneous environments. Elastifile provides the architecture needed to optimize your hybrid cloud environment, by facilitating efficient...
SYS-CON Events announced today that GrapeUp, the leading provider of rapid product development at the speed of business, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market acr...
"We provide IoT solutions. We provide the most compatible solutions for many applications. Our solutions are industry agnostic and also protocol agnostic," explained Richard Han, Head of Sales and Marketing and Engineering at Systena America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
Recently, IoT seems emerging as a solution vehicle for data analytics on real-world scenarios from setting a room temperature setting to predicting a component failure of an aircraft. Compared with developing an application or deploying a cloud service, is an IoT solution unique? If so, how? How does a typical IoT solution architecture consist? And what are the essential components and how are they relevant to each other? How does the security play out? What are the best practices in formulating...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arvind Radhakrishnen discussed how IoT offers new business models in banking and financial services organizations with the capability to revolutionize products, payments, channels, business processes and asset management built on strong architectural foundation. The following topics were covered: How IoT stands to impact various business parameters including customer experience, cost and risk management within BFS organizations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy named "Bronze Sponsor" of 21st International Cloud Expo which will take place October 31 - November 2, 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud com...
DX World EXPO, LLC., a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, discussed the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insights from the vast t...
21st International Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Me...
From 2013, NTT Communications has been providing cPaaS service, SkyWay. Its customer’s expectations for leveraging WebRTC technology are not only typical real-time communication use cases such as Web conference, remote education, but also IoT use cases such as remote camera monitoring, smart-glass, and robotic. Because of this, NTT Communications has numerous IoT business use-cases that its customers are developing on top of PaaS. WebRTC will lead IoT businesses to be more innovative and address...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sudarshan Krishnamurthi, a Senior Manager, Business Strategy, at Cisco Systems, discussed how IT and operational technology (OT) work together, as opposed to being in separate siloes as once was traditional. Attendees learned how to fully leverage the power of IoT in their organization by bringing the two sides together and bridging the communication gap. He also looked at what good leadership must entail in order to accomplish this, and how IT managers can be the ...