Click here to close now.


Java IoT Authors: Jennifer Gill, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Betty Zakheim

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT

Microservices Expo: Article

Architecture Evaluation Framework for ORM Technologies

Enterprise architects must use this framework to decide on the appropriate ORM technology to use

Object Relational Technologies form the backbone of most of the enterprise Java applications. Choosing the appropriate technology however is one of the most important decisions for an enterprise architect. More often than not, such a decision is either a hit or miss. Mistakes done in selecting the appropriate technology results in performance bottlenecks, lack of scalability, unreliable transaction handling etc.

More than the problem with the specific ORM technology, it's the suitability of that technology to the underlying business needs and non-functional requirements. This article aims to establish an objective architecture evaluation framework for evaluating which ORM technology best fits your project needs. Based on the requirements, one or the other technology may be appropriate.

For an ORM framework to be flexible, the following considerations are important

  1. Do multiple options exist to access and manipulate data
    Should the project need multiple ways to access data. This would include object based way of querying data, using native SQL, using ORM specific natural query language. The architect must decide the importance of each of these methods and evaluate this parameter.
  2. Does the ORM tool supports extending the various default data types, with user defined data types
    Project needs change and so there are requirements to add custom data types. The ORM tool must support this feature, should you envisage the changing needs of your project.
  3. Ability to invoke interceptors on the data before it is saved, accessed or deleted
    Enterprise projects often need to add additional business validations or business logic over a period of time. Many of these changes need to be cross-functional. The ORM tool must have mechanism to intercept requests and inject such validations. This is an important factor if you foresee changes happening after the production deployment.
  4. Programmatic and Declarative Configurations
    The ORM framework must provide multiple ways for it to be configured. This is important again from the perspective of how flexible the tool needs to be.

Ease of Development

  1. Ability to create domain model from the database tables
    This is an important consideration if you already have database tables and you need to create domain model out of it through automatic code generation. The ORM framework must provide the appropriate utility for doing that.
  2. Ability to generate database tables from the domain model
    This is an important factor when the domain model has already been created as part of MDD and database needs to be created. This would ensure that there are minimal errors during generation of database schema
  3. Ability to specify natural query language for retrieval
    Typically ORM tools provide a criteria API to fire object oriented queries. However based on development experience, it is understood that this is not the best way of visualizing large and complex queries. If this is a criteria important for your project, you must ensure the availability of natural query language with the ORM tool. Support for native SQL is also important under this consideration


  1. Support for JTA transactions
    An enterprise ORM framework must support JTA transactions. This support should be both declarative as well as programmatic. This is the most important consideration for evaluating the reliability of the platform as incorrect transaction handling would be catastrophic
  2. Support for Batch Processing
    Looping through individual transactions for batch processing is a perfect way to crash your system. The ORM tool must support JDBC Batch updates for batch processing.
  3. Support for Caching
    Caching is important both from scalability as well as reliability perspective. Support for integrating third party cache should be an important consideration for all enterprise projects. The cache support must be distributable across the cluster as well

Scalability and Performance

  1. Ability to use container or third party connection pools
    Connection pools should provide ability to scale up to increased load
  2. Ability to support legacy code
    If you need support for legacy code, the ORM tool must support native invocation of stored procedures
  3. Ability to optimize queries for performance
    It is very difficult to optimize a two page query written using criteria API. Infact for many complex scenarios for an enterprise application, there is a need to fire native SQL queries. These queries are also easy to optimize especially by the DBAs. If performance is a critical requirement, this factor must be considered
  4. Ability to cache queries and query results
    This is an important criterion for scalability


  1. Ability to modify domain model or DB model with minimal changes to underlying code
    This is an important factor if you foresee such changes
  2. Ability to log the framework internals
    During development as well as during production failures, there is an urgent need to debug to identify the issue. Many a times the issue may lie with the ORM framework itself. This is an important consideration for any enterprise application.
  3. Integration with JMX for runtime statistics
    If instrumenting the application during production under consideration, this is a must have feature for your ORM tool.

Essential Features

  1. Ability to support multiple relationships
    These would include one-to-many, many-to-many and many-to-one relationships
  2. Ability to support lazy loading
    This is important when you need to eagerly load a chain of nested objects. This feature is useful when underlying data store is not huge.
  3. Ability to support sorting and pagination
    These features are a must for search based applications
  4. Declarative security
    Authorizing different users to execute different queries can easily be achieved using this framework.
  5. Support for Dynamic SQL
    For any non-trivial application dynamic SQL is a must

An enterprise architect can use the above criteria to evaluate the most suitable ORM framework for his application. Each of the criteria should be judged with respect to the application requirements. A scoring model which gives weightage to respective parameters and computes the final scores for each of the applicable ORM tools is the right procedure to use the above architectural framework.

More Stories By Mahesh K Punjabi

Mahesh K Punjabi is a senior technology architect with Infosys Technologies Ltd. He has extensive experience designing enterprise applications using Java and multitude of RIA technologies including Flex and GWT. His other passions include photography and speaking with Toastmasters' clubs.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The Internet of Everything is re-shaping technology trends–moving away from “request/response” architecture to an “always-on” Streaming Web where data is in constant motion and secure, reliable communication is an absolute necessity. As more and more THINGS go online, the challenges that developers will need to address will only increase exponentially. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Todd Greene, Founder & CEO of PubNub, exploreed the current state of IoT connectivity and review key trends and technology requirements that will drive the Internet of Things from hype to reality.
Two weeks ago (November 3-5), I attended the Cloud Expo Silicon Valley as a speaker, where I presented on the security and privacy due diligence requirements for cloud solutions. Cloud security is a topical issue for every CIO, CISO, and technology buyer. Decision-makers are always looking for insights on how to mitigate the security risks of implementing and using cloud solutions. Based on the presentation topics covered at the conference, as well as the general discussions heard between sessions, I wanted to share some of my observations on emerging trends. As cyber security serves as a fou...
We all know that data growth is exploding and storage budgets are shrinking. Instead of showing you charts on about how much data there is, in his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Scott Cleland, Senior Director of Product Marketing at HGST, showed how to capture all of your data in one place. After you have your data under control, you can then analyze it in one place, saving time and resources.
With all the incredible momentum behind the Internet of Things (IoT) industry, it is easy to forget that not a single CEO wakes up and wonders if “my IoT is broken.” What they wonder is if they are making the right decisions to do all they can to increase revenue, decrease costs, and improve customer experience – effectively the same challenges they have always had in growing their business. The exciting thing about the IoT industry is now these decisions can be better, faster, and smarter. Now all corporate assets – people, objects, and spaces – can share information about themselves and thei...
The cloud. Like a comic book superhero, there seems to be no problem it can’t fix or cost it can’t slash. Yet making the transition is not always easy and production environments are still largely on premise. Taking some practical and sensible steps to reduce risk can also help provide a basis for a successful cloud transition. A plethora of surveys from the likes of IDG and Gartner show that more than 70 percent of enterprises have deployed at least one or more cloud application or workload. Yet a closer inspection at the data reveals less than half of these cloud projects involve production...
Continuous processes around the development and deployment of applications are both impacted by -- and a benefit to -- the Internet of Things trend. To help better understand the relationship between DevOps and a plethora of new end-devices and data please welcome Gary Gruver, consultant, author and a former IT executive who has led many large-scale IT transformation projects, and John Jeremiah, Technology Evangelist at Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), on Twitter at @j_jeremiah. The discussion is moderated by me, Dana Gardner, Principal Analyst at Interarbor Solutions.
Discussions of cloud computing have evolved in recent years from a focus on specific types of cloud, to a world of hybrid cloud, and to a world dominated by the APIs that make today's multi-cloud environments and hybrid clouds possible. In this Power Panel at 17th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the importance of customers being able to use the specific technologies they need, through environments and ecosystems that expose their APIs to make true change and transformation possible.
Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
Microservices are a very exciting architectural approach that many organizations are looking to as a way to accelerate innovation. Microservices promise to allow teams to move away from monolithic "ball of mud" systems, but the reality is that, in the vast majority of organizations, different projects and technologies will continue to be developed at different speeds. How to handle the dependencies between these disparate systems with different iteration cycles? Consider the "canoncial problem" in this scenario: microservice A (releases daily) depends on a couple of additions to backend B (re...
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound effect on the world, and what should we expect to see over the next couple of years.
Container technology is shaping the future of DevOps and it’s also changing the way organizations think about application development. With the rise of mobile applications in the enterprise, businesses are abandoning year-long development cycles and embracing technologies that enable rapid development and continuous deployment of apps. In his session at DevOps Summit, Kurt Collins, Developer Evangelist at, examined how Docker has evolved into a highly effective tool for application delivery by allowing increasingly popular Mobile Backend-as-a-Service (mBaaS) platforms to quickly crea...
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Day 2 Keynote at 17th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, wil...
PubNub has announced the release of BLOCKS, a set of customizable microservices that give developers a simple way to add code and deploy features for realtime apps.PubNub BLOCKS executes business logic directly on the data streaming through PubNub’s network without splitting it off to an intermediary server controlled by the customer. This revolutionary approach streamlines app development, reduces endpoint-to-endpoint latency, and allows apps to better leverage the enormous scalability of PubNub’s Data Stream Network.
Apps and devices shouldn't stop working when there's limited or no network connectivity. Learn how to bring data stored in a cloud database to the edge of the network (and back again) whenever an Internet connection is available. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Ben Perlmutter, a Sales Engineer with IBM Cloudant, demonstrated techniques for replicating cloud databases with devices in order to build offline-first mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) apps that can provide a better, faster user experience, both offline and online. The focus of this talk was on IBM Cloudant, Apache CouchDB, and ...
I recently attended and was a speaker at the 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center. I also had the opportunity to attend this event last year and I wrote a blog from that show talking about how the “Enterprise Impact of IoT” was a key theme of last year’s show. I was curious to see if the same theme would still resonate 365 days later and what, if any, changes I would see in the content presented.
Cloud computing delivers on-demand resources that provide businesses with flexibility and cost-savings. The challenge in moving workloads to the cloud has been the cost and complexity of ensuring the initial and ongoing security and regulatory (PCI, HIPAA, FFIEC) compliance across private and public clouds. Manual security compliance is slow, prone to human error, and represents over 50% of the cost of managing cloud applications. Determining how to automate cloud security compliance is critical to maintaining positive ROI. Raxak Protect is an automated security compliance SaaS platform and ma...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data shows "less than 10 percent of IoT developers are making enough to support a reasonably sized team....
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound cha...
Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
DevOps is about increasing efficiency, but nothing is more inefficient than building the same application twice. However, this is a routine occurrence with enterprise applications that need both a rich desktop web interface and strong mobile support. With recent technological advances from Isomorphic Software and others, rich desktop and tuned mobile experiences can now be created with a single codebase – without compromising functionality, performance or usability. In his session at DevOps Summit, Charles Kendrick, CTO and Chief Architect at Isomorphic Software, demonstrated examples of com...