Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan, Jnan Dash

Related Topics: Java IoT, Microservices Expo

Java IoT: Article

Why Rule-Based Log Correlation Is Almost a Good Idea... (Part 5)

Performance tolls - why you can't correlate 100% of your logs

Performance Tolls - Why you cannot correlate 100% of your logs...?
Compounding the combinatory explosion in the number of static-based correlation rules, it is impossible to correlate 100% of all your logs, it is just too expensive and not practical. Read on...

A correlation engine works really hard, even when dealing with a limited set of scenarios:

  • Each scenario requires lots of rules and exceptions, and most of these rules need to be interpreted further as dozen, if not hundred of simple checks and tests. For example, you may want to flag loops with a simple rule such as "IP Origin" = "IP Destination". If you have 1 000 logs this means that for each log you need to do 1 000 tests. Imagine having a million logs, a trillion logs, which is not uncommon on a medium sized infrastructure over a couple days.
  • Each scenario requires state information to be kept and managed for hours, or even days. For example, you may want to be alerted if A happens then within 1 day B happens and then within 1 day C happens. This means that lots of state information needs to be kept over a 2-day span, the engine is constantly monitoring for A to happen, then as soon as A happens the engine starts the clock and monitors for B, and if B happens within that day then a new countdown starts to look for C, all the meanwhile also constantly monitoring for A so as to start a new A then B then C condition... If A happens a lot, and B also happens frequently after A then the engine will need to store lots of A then B state information while monitoring for all the required C.

This requires:

  • Extremely powerful servers needed to run these rules and their corresponding "if then else" tests and checks when there are lots of logs.
  • Vast amounts of temporary memory needed to keep state information in memory and speed up processing while avoiding swapping to disks.

So the correlation engine needs to be fed very carefully, don't give it more than what it can chew or it will essentially run out of resources and die.

Knowing which logs need to be part of scope is an important part of tuning a correlation engine.

No, you cannot ask your correlation solution to manage all of your logs. It's not designed for that. Managing only the most critical ones is already a daunting task for it.

Correlation load for one simple correlation rule over one hour
As an example, let's have a closer look at Attack Scenario 1 - Identity Theft that we elaborated on, and put a threshold of 1 hour for flagging Identity Theft.

Assumptions - at that time, we have:

o 5 logins/sec average from local logins

o 5 logins/sec average from VPN logins

o 1 000 events/sec average total infrastructure

o Logs kept for a total of 1 week - for reporting etc.

Total data space of 1000*3600*24*7 = 604 800 000 events

For each local login event - which is 5 times per second

o Look in the VPN login events - for the past 3600 seconds - and check if that same person logged in through VPN

Total data space of 3600*5 = 18 000 events VPN logins

Total of 18 000 * 5 = 90 000 checks per second

Size of that 1 hour data space in which to perform the 90 000 checks

o 1000 events/sec * 3600 = 3 600 000 events

So, for this one correlation rule:

  • Among the 604 million records total for the past week
  • Among the 3.6 million records for the past hour
  • The Correlation Engine needs to perform:

Reads

90 000 database reads and checks per second

Writes

While at the same time doing 1000 record writes and inserts per second

  • And at the same time, continue collecting, parsing and normalizing, reporting, alerting, "signing of logs", housekeeping and allowing users to log in and use the tool etc etc...

Correlation load for one complex global rule over one day
Imagine now a complex correlation rule that requires the engine to look 100 times per second, and to do this over the full 1-day sliding window.

The assumptions are then:

  • Full data space

Same 1 week = 604 800 000 events

  • One-day sliding window data space

1000 * 3600 * 24 = 86 400 000 events

  • For each correlation rule, we are doing

Number of tests = 100 times per second, look into each record in the 1-day sliding window data space

100 * 86 400 000 = 8 640 000 000 tests per second

That's 8 billion reads per second!!!
Sure you can use tricks and shortcuts to avoid doing all the 8 billion checks, but that gives an idea of the searching power required... for this 1 scenario!!!

Imagine having to enrich this 1 correlation rule with geolocalization information, or somehow putting a dynamic dimension to it.

Imagine having 100's or 1000's of correlation rules, what would be the impact on number of database reads and load?

This is just not practical, and you cannot always solve this problem by throwing more hardware at it.

Did you know that APT attacks can last weeks and months? Stay tuned for what this means for static rule based correlation...

More Stories By Gorka Sadowski

Gorka is a natural born entrepreneur with a deep understanding of Technology, IT Security and how these create value in the Marketplace. He is today offering innovative European startups the opportunity to benefit from the Silicon Valley ecosystem accelerators. Gorka spent the last 20 years initiating, building and growing businesses that provide technology solutions to the Industry. From General Manager Spain, Italy and Portugal for LogLogic, defining Next Generation Log Management and Security Forensics, to Director Unisys France, bringing Cloud Security service offerings to the market, from Director of Emerging Technologies at NetScreen, defining Next Generation Firewall, to Director of Performance Engineering at INS, removing WAN and Internet bottlenecks, Gorka has always been involved in innovative Technology and IT Security solutions, creating successful Business Units within established Groups and helping launch breakthrough startups such as KOLA Kids OnLine America, a social network for safe computing for children, SourceFire, a leading network security solution provider, or Ibixis, a boutique European business accelerator.

@ThingsExpo Stories
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
IoT solutions exploit operational data generated by Internet-connected smart “things” for the purpose of gaining operational insight and producing “better outcomes” (for example, create new business models, eliminate unscheduled maintenance, etc.). The explosive proliferation of IoT solutions will result in an exponential growth in the volume of IoT data, precipitating significant Information Governance issues: who owns the IoT data, what are the rights/duties of IoT solutions adopters towards t...
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
Unsecured IoT devices were used to launch crippling DDOS attacks in October 2016, targeting services such as Twitter, Spotify, and GitHub. Subsequent testimony to Congress about potential attacks on office buildings, schools, and hospitals raised the possibility for the IoT to harm and even kill people. What should be done? Does the government need to intervene? This panel at @ThingExpo New York brings together leading IoT and security experts to discuss this very serious topic.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, discussed recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model for ...
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain. In this power panel at @...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
"We build IoT infrastructure products - when you have to integrate different devices, different systems and cloud you have to build an application to do that but we eliminate the need to build an application. Our products can integrate any device, any system, any cloud regardless of protocol," explained Peter Jung, Chief Product Officer at Pulzze Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2017 New York The 7th Internet of @ThingsExpo will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. Chris Matthieu is the co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, a revolutionary real-time IoT platform recently acquired by Citrix. Octoblu connects things, systems, people and clouds to a global mesh network allowing users to automate and control design flo...
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, director/senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
According to Forrester Research, every business will become either a digital predator or digital prey by 2020. To avoid demise, organizations must rapidly create new sources of value in their end-to-end customer experiences. True digital predators also must break down information and process silos and extend digital transformation initiatives to empower employees with the digital resources needed to win, serve, and retain customers.
The WebRTC Summit New York, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is now open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 20th International Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo. WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web co...
In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, discussed how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team at D...
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to simplify and streamline our lives by automating routine tasks that distract us from our goals. This promise is based on the ubiquitous deployment of smart, connected devices that link everything from industrial control systems to automobiles to refrigerators. Unfortunately, comparatively few of the devices currently deployed have been developed with an eye toward security, and as the DDoS attacks of late October 2016 have demonstrated, this oversight can ...
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...