Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Chris Schwarz

Related Topics: Java IoT, Microservices Expo

Java IoT: Article

Why Rule-Based Log Correlation Is Almost a Good Idea... (Part 5)

Performance tolls - why you can't correlate 100% of your logs

Performance Tolls - Why you cannot correlate 100% of your logs...?
Compounding the combinatory explosion in the number of static-based correlation rules, it is impossible to correlate 100% of all your logs, it is just too expensive and not practical. Read on...

A correlation engine works really hard, even when dealing with a limited set of scenarios:

  • Each scenario requires lots of rules and exceptions, and most of these rules need to be interpreted further as dozen, if not hundred of simple checks and tests. For example, you may want to flag loops with a simple rule such as "IP Origin" = "IP Destination". If you have 1 000 logs this means that for each log you need to do 1 000 tests. Imagine having a million logs, a trillion logs, which is not uncommon on a medium sized infrastructure over a couple days.
  • Each scenario requires state information to be kept and managed for hours, or even days. For example, you may want to be alerted if A happens then within 1 day B happens and then within 1 day C happens. This means that lots of state information needs to be kept over a 2-day span, the engine is constantly monitoring for A to happen, then as soon as A happens the engine starts the clock and monitors for B, and if B happens within that day then a new countdown starts to look for C, all the meanwhile also constantly monitoring for A so as to start a new A then B then C condition... If A happens a lot, and B also happens frequently after A then the engine will need to store lots of A then B state information while monitoring for all the required C.

This requires:

  • Extremely powerful servers needed to run these rules and their corresponding "if then else" tests and checks when there are lots of logs.
  • Vast amounts of temporary memory needed to keep state information in memory and speed up processing while avoiding swapping to disks.

So the correlation engine needs to be fed very carefully, don't give it more than what it can chew or it will essentially run out of resources and die.

Knowing which logs need to be part of scope is an important part of tuning a correlation engine.

No, you cannot ask your correlation solution to manage all of your logs. It's not designed for that. Managing only the most critical ones is already a daunting task for it.

Correlation load for one simple correlation rule over one hour
As an example, let's have a closer look at Attack Scenario 1 - Identity Theft that we elaborated on, and put a threshold of 1 hour for flagging Identity Theft.

Assumptions - at that time, we have:

o 5 logins/sec average from local logins

o 5 logins/sec average from VPN logins

o 1 000 events/sec average total infrastructure

o Logs kept for a total of 1 week - for reporting etc.

Total data space of 1000*3600*24*7 = 604 800 000 events

For each local login event - which is 5 times per second

o Look in the VPN login events - for the past 3600 seconds - and check if that same person logged in through VPN

Total data space of 3600*5 = 18 000 events VPN logins

Total of 18 000 * 5 = 90 000 checks per second

Size of that 1 hour data space in which to perform the 90 000 checks

o 1000 events/sec * 3600 = 3 600 000 events

So, for this one correlation rule:

  • Among the 604 million records total for the past week
  • Among the 3.6 million records for the past hour
  • The Correlation Engine needs to perform:

Reads

90 000 database reads and checks per second

Writes

While at the same time doing 1000 record writes and inserts per second

  • And at the same time, continue collecting, parsing and normalizing, reporting, alerting, "signing of logs", housekeeping and allowing users to log in and use the tool etc etc...

Correlation load for one complex global rule over one day
Imagine now a complex correlation rule that requires the engine to look 100 times per second, and to do this over the full 1-day sliding window.

The assumptions are then:

  • Full data space

Same 1 week = 604 800 000 events

  • One-day sliding window data space

1000 * 3600 * 24 = 86 400 000 events

  • For each correlation rule, we are doing

Number of tests = 100 times per second, look into each record in the 1-day sliding window data space

100 * 86 400 000 = 8 640 000 000 tests per second

That's 8 billion reads per second!!!
Sure you can use tricks and shortcuts to avoid doing all the 8 billion checks, but that gives an idea of the searching power required... for this 1 scenario!!!

Imagine having to enrich this 1 correlation rule with geolocalization information, or somehow putting a dynamic dimension to it.

Imagine having 100's or 1000's of correlation rules, what would be the impact on number of database reads and load?

This is just not practical, and you cannot always solve this problem by throwing more hardware at it.

Did you know that APT attacks can last weeks and months? Stay tuned for what this means for static rule based correlation...

More Stories By Gorka Sadowski

Gorka is a natural born entrepreneur with a deep understanding of Technology, IT Security and how these create value in the Marketplace. He is today offering innovative European startups the opportunity to benefit from the Silicon Valley ecosystem accelerators. Gorka spent the last 20 years initiating, building and growing businesses that provide technology solutions to the Industry. From General Manager Spain, Italy and Portugal for LogLogic, defining Next Generation Log Management and Security Forensics, to Director Unisys France, bringing Cloud Security service offerings to the market, from Director of Emerging Technologies at NetScreen, defining Next Generation Firewall, to Director of Performance Engineering at INS, removing WAN and Internet bottlenecks, Gorka has always been involved in innovative Technology and IT Security solutions, creating successful Business Units within established Groups and helping launch breakthrough startups such as KOLA Kids OnLine America, a social network for safe computing for children, SourceFire, a leading network security solution provider, or Ibixis, a boutique European business accelerator.

@ThingsExpo Stories
"We provide IoT solutions. We provide the most compatible solutions for many applications. Our solutions are industry agnostic and also protocol agnostic," explained Richard Han, Head of Sales and Marketing and Engineering at Systena America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We are focused on SAP running in the clouds, to make this super easy because we believe in the tremendous value of those powerful worlds - SAP and the cloud," explained Frank Stienhans, CTO of Ocean9, Inc., in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
DX World EXPO, LLC., a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
"DX encompasses the continuing technology revolution, and is addressing society's most important issues throughout the entire $78 trillion 21st-century global economy," said Roger Strukhoff, Conference Chair. "DX World Expo has organized these issues along 10 tracks with more than 150 of the world's top speakers coming to Istanbul to help change the world."
"We've been engaging with a lot of customers including Panasonic, we've been involved with Cisco and now we're working with the U.S. government - the Department of Homeland Security," explained Peter Jung, Chief Product Officer at Pulzze Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
The financial services market is one of the most data-driven industries in the world, yet it’s bogged down by legacy CPU technologies that simply can’t keep up with the task of querying and visualizing billions of records. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Karthik Lalithraj, a Principal Solutions Architect at Kinetica, discussed how the advent of advanced in-database analytics on the GPU makes it possible to run sophisticated data science workloads on the same database that is housing the rich...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Massive Networks mission is simple. To help your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions. Improve your customer's experience with outstanding connections to your cloud.
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution and join Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader, Sergey Grebnov, in his session at @ThingsExpo, for an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
"The Striim platform is a full end-to-end streaming integration and analytics platform that is middleware that covers a lot of different use cases," explained Steve Wilkes, Founder and CTO at Striim, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Calligo, an innovative cloud service provider offering mid-sized companies the highest levels of data privacy and security, has been named "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Calligo offers unparalleled application performance guarantees, commercial flexibility and a personalised support service from its globally located cloud plat...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
While the focus and objectives of IoT initiatives are many and diverse, they all share a few common attributes, and one of those is the network. Commonly, that network includes the Internet, over which there isn't any real control for performance and availability. Or is there? The current state of the art for Big Data analytics, as applied to network telemetry, offers new opportunities for improving and assuring operational integrity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Frey, Vice President of S...
"MobiDev is a Ukraine-based software development company. We do mobile development, and we're specialists in that. But we do full stack software development for entrepreneurs, for emerging companies, and for enterprise ventures," explained Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, discussed the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insights from the vast t...
SYS-CON Events announced today that EnterpriseTech has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. EnterpriseTech is a professional resource for news and intelligence covering the migration of high-end technologies into the enterprise and business-IT industry, with a special focus on high-tech solutions in new product development, workload management, increased effic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks, that helps your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. As a premier telecommunications provider, Massive Networks is headquartered out of Louisville, Colorado. With years of experience under their belt, their team of...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy named "Bronze Sponsor" of 21st International Cloud Expo which will take place October 31 - November 2, 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud com...