|By Sathiya Rajendhran||
|January 15, 2012 11:00 AM EST||
Defining "Who sees what" and "who does what" are the two important aspects of access control in any software application.
"Security" is a much larger subject, but this article focuses on just the access control aspects of security in a software application.
The Older Paradigm: Roles and Page-Level Access Controls
When you build a custom application for a specific customer, the access control policies of the organization are often defined upfront as part of the requirements phase. Depending on the vertical, domain and the specific organizational structure of the business, first the roles are defined. And then each role is given access to a set of screens, forms, pages and reports. What role A sees might be different from what role B sees. What role A can do could be different from what role B is allowed to do. Of course, certain areas in the application can be accessed by multiple roles. While building software products (used by several customers), the roles are often generalized and predefined. The various access control policies of the product are often hard coded in to the roles. The customer will be able to assign one or more roles to their users.
The New Paradigm: Privilege-Based Access Controls
In the new paradigm, before doing any action (including showing something on the screen - which is the View action), you check / demand for the privilege to view that information or do a certain action. It could be standard actions such as view, edit and delete or special privileges such as "Access to History Data" or "Access to information or content created by people other than myself. In the new paradigm, a user / roles privileges are resolved during run time - not hard coded at design time. This allows the product developer to complete the development just by demanding the necessary privileges at each step, without having to worry about the users and roles in the system.
Mapping Privileges to Roles
By enumerating the various privileges (entity wise or form wise standard privileges as well as special privileges) in an administration screen, we can allow the end customer to map the privileges to any specific role, during run time. This takes care of dynamic changes in organizational policy. This also allows the end customer to create completely new roles (not originally envisaged by the product designer) dynamically during actual usage and map a set of privileges to these new roles using an admin screen.
For example in a HR product, the product might have default roles such as "Employee" and "Manager" whereas a customer may create a new role called "Team Leader" or "Mentor."
Subsequently, users can be assigned with one or more roles (including new custom roles). So when a user is using the system, the application can resolve who the user is, what his or her role is, what the privileges of the role are - all during run time. So before a particular action, the application can simply check whether the required privilege is available for the user and proceed. While this may seem little challenging from the software design/development front, it will bring in lot of flexibility for the customers.
Many a time, mapping privileges to roles and assigning roles to users is also not adequate. Let's illustrate this with an example:
[email protected] has logged in to a performance management product. She has been assigned the role of a "Manager" and a set of Privileges have been assigned to this role. For example she can add certain new skills in the skills master, which another user with an "Employee" role cannot do.
But the real challenge however is in defining what she can and cannot see and what she can and cannot do with respect to the performance appraisal ratings of various employees.
Out of the 300 people in the organization, userX, is a "Primary Manager" for 4 employees, "Co-Manager for 5 employees", "Mentor" for 5 employees, "Department Head for 40 employees", and "Peer" for 15 employees. She is not related to the rest of the employees in the organization (in the context of performance management).
The privileges of what each of these "Relationships" can and cannot do is different. For example, a Mentor can view performance ratings but cannot edit them. A Primary Manager can edit ratings, but cannot approve them. And a Department head can approve/disapprove ratings, but cannot edit them.
How can we allow userX to login in once, view all the employees related to her in a single grid, but restrict her access depending on the relationship between her and the employee on whom she is performing the action?
- Step 1: Define relationships in a master: This could be added / edited by the end customer.
- Step 2: Map each privilege to a set of relationships who are to be given this privilege.
- Step 3: Resolve the relationship between the user and the employee during run time and accordingly deduce whether the user has or does not have the privilege to do an action.
Static Data Scope
Apart from defining what a role can or cannot do / see, we often also want to restrict the boundaries of the data that the user has access to. For example, "Can edit employee profile information - but - only for people in his division / department", "Can see salary details - but only for employees reporting to her or to her down the line reports". Another example is to say that the Sales manager can access leads / customers only from his territory.
These datascopes should not be hard coded in the product, but should be configurable by an end customer. For each role and privilege mapping, the data scope can also be mapped.
The meanings of these datascopes are defined as "Meta data" which are nothing but Filter conditions. These filter conditions should be dynamically applied on the data set being accessed during run time, depending on the role-privilege-data scope resolved for the user context.
Dynamic Data Scope
This is an extended form of data scope, where the variable being defined for the data scope is itself defined dynamically.
For example, an "HR Administrator" role assigned to "User A" should administer for employees in "Location, P, Q and R" and "HR Administrator" role assigned to "User B" should administer for employees in "Location S, T and V" - where the location itself is user defined by the end customer in a Location Master.
Or Finance Manager should be able see the books of Divisions "A, B, C and D" where the Divisions itself is user defined by the end customer in a Division master.
Multi-Tenant Access Control
When the roles, relationships, privileges, static and dynamic data scopes are user definable by the end customer, and when the sample application serves multiple customers / tenants (from a single instance of the application), then we need to store all these access control configurations - tenant wise. So during run time, we should not only resolve the data scopes-privileges-roles-users, but also apply the tenant context and look up the appropriate tenant specific access control settings, before deciding to allow or disallow a particular action in the application.
Privilege mapping should be possible at the field Level, entity Level, form Level and page Level, so that the end customer / tenant has absolute control and flexibility in defining and modifying "Who sees what" and "Who can do what" in the system.
Tying in Subscription/ License Control with Access Control
Different tenants/ customers/ user groups should be given access or denied access to different modules and features in the product. This depends on the package that they have bought (in a SaaS product) or based on the Organizational Policy (in a Private/ Internal SaaS product).
These modules and features have to be first defined as Meta data and the corresponding page level access controls have to be mapped to them. This will allow the product to hide or show certain menu items and links to users depending on the tenant context and the packages enabled for that tenant/ user group.
Usage-Based Quota and Access Control
Many a times tenants are allowed to use the product for a specific no. of users or for a specified quota of usage (For example can do XXX no. of market surveys). These transactions and events have to be metered in the product, and once the defined quota is exceeded, the access control system should deny access to any user belonging to that tenant / user group.
The Access Control Paradigm of a Multi-tenant Application/ SaaS Product, should enlarge its frame of reference to include extensive customizability and configurability to suit different customers and organizations while still maintaining a single instance and code base.
The engineering stack of a Multi - tenant SaaS product, should have a robust and flexible Access Control layer, so that all the dynamic and run time capabilities are handled at the framework level. The developer then can focus on building the business functions, follow the guidelines provided by the underlying framework and demand a privilege before doing any significant action.
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
May. 1, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,076
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
May. 1, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 774
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
May. 1, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,137
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
May. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 736
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
May. 1, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 971
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
May. 1, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 909
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
May. 1, 2016 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,090
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
May. 1, 2016 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 927
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
May. 1, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 812
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
May. 1, 2016 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,482
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, will discuss how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to im...
Apr. 30, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,680
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
Apr. 30, 2016 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,723
IoT device adoption is growing at staggering rates, and with it comes opportunity for developers to meet consumer demand for an ever more connected world. Wireless communication is the key part of the encompassing components of any IoT device. Wireless connectivity enhances the device utility at the expense of ease of use and deployment challenges. Since connectivity is fundamental for IoT device development, engineers must understand how to overcome the hurdles inherent in incorporating multipl...
Apr. 30, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,462
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
Apr. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 686
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Apr. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,540
Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified – now it's a component-based well-performing framework. This immersive one-day workshop at 18th Cloud Expo, led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2.
Apr. 30, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,716
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Apr. 30, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,302
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
Apr. 30, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,477
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
Apr. 30, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 896
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
Apr. 30, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 757