Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Charles Araujo

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Open Source Cloud, Containers Expo Blog, Agile Computing

@CloudExpo: Article

Examining Excellent Eucalyptus

A high-level cloud - overview of Eucalyptus IaaS

Eucalyptus is an open source Infrastructure as a Service cloud offering. What is unique about Eucalyptus is that it is compatible with Amazon AWS APIs. This means that you can:

  • Use Eucalyptus commands to manage Amazon or Eucalyptus instances.
  • Freely move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Public cloud to create a hybrid cloud.

Eucalyptus leverages operating system virtualization, such as KVM or XEN, to achieve isolation between applications and stacks. Operating system virtualization dedicates CPU and RAM to systems and applications such that they don't interfere with each other. In cloud parlance, this is called isolation and is essential to achieve multi-tenancy. (For a refresher on basic cloud terminology, see here; for a refresher on Infrastructure as a Service, see here).

Cloud computing layers on top of operating system virtualization and when combined with dynamic  allocation of IP addresses, storage  and firewall rules creates a service that end users interact with to run instances of images.

Eucalyptus concepts
The following is an explanation of terminology and concepts used by Eucalyptus.

Images
An image is a fixed collection of software modules, system software, application software and configuration information that is started from a known baseline (immutable/fixed). An example of an image is a Linux virtual machine configured with Apache, MySQL, Perl and PHP.  When bundled and uploaded to the Eucalyptus cloud, this will become known as an "EMI" Eucalyptus Machine Image.  An EKI is an Eucalyptus Kernel Image which contains kernel modules necessary for functioning of the image. An ERI is a Eucalyptus RAM Image.

Instances
When an image is put to use it is called an instance. The configuration is dynamically executed at runtime and the cloud controller decides where the image will run, storage and networking is attached to meet resource needs. This is executed under the control of the credentials (digital certificates) of the user who is requesting an instance of the image.

IP addressing
Eucalyptus instances can have public and private IPs. An IP address is assigned to an instance when the instance is created from an image. For instances that require a persistent IP address, such as  web-server, Eucalyptus supplies Elastic IP addresses. These are pre-allocated by the Eucalyptus cloud to an instance. An Elastic IP persists whether the instance is running or not. In other words if you stop an instance and restart it hours, days or even weeks later, the instance will bind to the same Elastic IP address that was assigned to it. This is essential for consistent DNS resolution.

Security
TCP/IP stack layer 3 security is achieved using security groups, which share a common set of firewall rules. This is a mechanism to firewall off an instance using IP address and port block/allow functionality.

At TCP/IP layer 2 instances are isolated. If this were not present, a root user could manipulate the networking of instances and gain access to neighboring instances violating the basic cloud tenet of instance isolation and separation.

Networking
There are three networking modes:

  1. Managed mode - Eucalyptus manages a local network of instances, including security groups and elastic IPs. Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and provides private non-routable IPs to instances. An instance is created in a security group and gets an IP from the range in that group.  There is also a pool of public (elastic) IPs that users can bind to an instance at boot-time or dynamically at runtime. VLANs are used to network instances in different security groups. If there is no VLAN present, isolation can be achieved using security groups in different subnets.
  2. System mode - Essentially the physical LAN that is attached to Eucalyptus manages the network of the Eucalyptus cloud. Eucalyptus assigns a MAC address and attaches the instance's network interface to the physical Ethernet LAN through the NodeController's bridge. System mode requires a DHCP server on the physical LAN that is reachable by instances. System mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.
  3. Static mode - In static mode Eucalyptus maintains a DHCP server and assigns IP addresses to instances. Static mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups or VM isolation.

Access control
A user of Eucalyptus is called an identity. Identities can be grouped together for access control purposes. Users exist within accounts. An account is a namespace that contains users/identities, key pairs and security groups. An account is used to account for resource usage.

Eucalyptus abbreviations
CLC

The CLC is a Cloud controller similar to Amazon EC2, It is the entry point into cloud for all users: administrators, developers, project managers and  end users. The CLC queries other components for resources and makes scheduling decisions and requests to Cluster Controllers. The CLC exposing and manages underlying resources (servers, networks, storage).  Users access the CLC using AWS compatible command line tools and a web-based dashboard.

Walrus
Walrus, similar to Amazon's S3,  is a bucket based persistent data storage.  Users create, delete and list buckets; put and remove objects from buckets; get and set access control policies. Walrus is accessible from the administrative interface or from an instance inside cloud.

CC
The CC is the Cluster Controller. The CC gathers information about node controllers and schedules an instance to execute on a specific NodeController.

NC
The NC is the the Node Controller. The Node Controller manages instances. The NC controls instance activities such as execution, inspection and termination.  The NC fetches and maintains a cache of instance images.  The NC also manages virtual network endpoints.

SC
The SC is the storage controller and is similar to Amazon's EBS (Elastic Block Store). The storage controller manages block accessed network storage.  The SC interfaces with SCSI, SAN, NFS.  The SC exports storage volumes that can be attached to an instance or mounted as a raw-block device. SC storage volumes persist even when an instance stops running and thus stores persistent data. SC storage cannot be shared between instances and only exists in the same Availability Zone in which the instance is running. Users can create snapshots from SC volumes which can stored in Walrus and thus be made available across Availability Zones.

More Stories By Jonathan Gershater

Jonathan Gershater has lived and worked in Silicon Valley since 1996, primarily doing system and sales engineering specializing in: Web Applications, Identity and Security. At Red Hat, he provides Technical Marketing for Virtualization and Cloud. Prior to joining Red Hat, Jonathan worked at 3Com, Entrust (by acquisition) two startups, Sun Microsystems and Trend Micro.

(The views expressed in this blog are entirely mine and do not represent my employer - Jonathan).

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.
IoT is rapidly becoming mainstream as more and more investments are made into the platforms and technology. As this movement continues to expand and gain momentum it creates a massive wall of noise that can be difficult to sift through. Unfortunately, this inevitably makes IoT less approachable for people to get started with and can hamper efforts to integrate this key technology into your own portfolio. There are so many connected products already in place today with many hundreds more on the h...
In his session at Cloud Expo, Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, presented a success story of an entrepreneur who has both suffered through and benefited from offshore development across multiple businesses: The smart choice, or how to select the right offshore development partner Warning signs, or how to minimize chances of making the wrong choice Collaboration, or how to establish the most effective work processes Budget control, or how to maximize project result...
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abilit...
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, discussed the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docker c...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
No hype cycles or predictions of zillions of things here. IoT is big. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, Associate Partner at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data analytics considerations, edge-to-cloud tec...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settl...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dr. Robert Cohen, an economist and senior fellow at the Economic Strategy Institute, presented the findings of a series of six detailed case studies of how large corporations are implementing IoT. The session explored how IoT has improved their economic performance, had major impacts on business models and resulted in impressive ROIs. The companies covered span manufacturing and services firms. He also explored servicification, how manufacturing firms shift from se...
IoT is at the core or many Digital Transformation initiatives with the goal of re-inventing a company's business model. We all agree that collecting relevant IoT data will result in massive amounts of data needing to be stored. However, with the rapid development of IoT devices and ongoing business model transformation, we are not able to predict the volume and growth of IoT data. And with the lack of IoT history, traditional methods of IT and infrastructure planning based on the past do not app...
Organizations planning enterprise data center consolidation and modernization projects are faced with a challenging, costly reality. Requirements to deploy modern, cloud-native applications simultaneously with traditional client/server applications are almost impossible to achieve with hardware-centric enterprise infrastructure. Compute and network infrastructure are fast moving down a software-defined path, but storage has been a laggard. Until now.
Digital Transformation is much more than a buzzword. The radical shift to digital mechanisms for almost every process is evident across all industries and verticals. This is often especially true in financial services, where the legacy environment is many times unable to keep up with the rapidly shifting demands of the consumer. The constant pressure to provide complete, omnichannel delivery of customer-facing solutions to meet both regulatory and customer demands is putting enormous pressure on...
The best way to leverage your CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at CloudEXPO. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audienc...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that All in Mobile, a mobile app development company from Poland, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. All In Mobile is a mobile app development company from Poland. Since 2014, they maintain passion for developing mobile applications for enterprises and startups worldwide.
"Akvelon is a software development company and we also provide consultancy services to folks who are looking to scale or accelerate their engineering roadmaps," explained Jeremiah Mothersell, Marketing Manager at Akvelon, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
JETRO showcased Japan Digital Transformation Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo® at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) is a non-profit organization that provides business support services to companies expanding to Japan. With the support of JETRO's dedicated staff, clients can incorporate their business; receive visa, immigration, and HR support; find dedicated office space; identify local government subsidies; get...
"We view the cloud not as a specific technology but as a way of doing business and that way of doing business is transforming the way software, infrastructure and services are being delivered to business," explained Matthew Rosen, CEO and Director at Fusion, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo (http://www.CloudComputingExpo.com), held June 7-9 at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that the upcoming DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO New York event will feature 10 companies from Poland to participate at the "Poland Digital Transformation Pavilion" on November 12-13, 2018.
The current age of digital transformation means that IT organizations must adapt their toolset to cover all digital experiences, beyond just the end users’. Today’s businesses can no longer focus solely on the digital interactions they manage with employees or customers; they must now contend with non-traditional factors. Whether it's the power of brand to make or break a company, the need to monitor across all locations 24/7, or the ability to proactively resolve issues, companies must adapt to...
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...