|By Rebecca Clinard||
|September 24, 2012 07:30 AM EDT||
The ability to conduct effective performance testing has become a highly desired skillset within the IT industry. Unfortunately, these highly sought-after skills are consistently in short supply. "Front-end testers" can work with a tool to create a realistic load and although this is an important skillset, creating the load is just the beginning of any performance project. Understanding the load patterns and tuning the environment makes the unique talents of a "performance engineer" worth their weight in gold.
Performance engineers require skills in data analysis such as resource usage patterns, modeling, capacity planning, and tuning in order to detect, isolate, and alleviate saturation points within a deployment. Performance testing generates concurrency conditions and exposes resource competition at a server level. When the competition results in a resource (such as a thread pool) becoming over-utilized, this resource becomes a bottleneck or a saturation point. Performance engineers need to first understand the underlying architectures and develop a sense of where to look for potential scalability issues. Much of these "senses" or skills come from experience, working in many multi-tier environments and successfully tuning bottlenecks. Here are some tips to make the challenging but rewarding transition from a front-end tester to a performance engineer.
Wisdom, Determination, Patience, and Communication
Who said there isn't a whole lot of psychology in technology? Whether you are determining the current capacity of a deployment or you are recreating a production problem, it's often a very complex task- so many moving parts within the infrastructure, so many numbers to analyze from so many sources, data sets of raw test results to turn into understandable formats, so many people to keep in the loop, so much technical coordination... I could go on and on. It's your professional soft skills which will keep you on the right course. It requires determination to unpeel the layers of an onion and investigate each tier of the deployment. It requires the wisdom to spot trends instead of pursuing the tangents of anomalies. It requires the dedication to keep an eye on many different metrics and isolate resource saturation. And it requires the patience to reproduce scenarios in order to make conclusions based on proof/evidence. And you need to accomplish all of this while being an excellent communicator!
Methodical Approach - The Constant
Spend your time wisely in the beginning and set up the most realistic test scenarios. Then "set" the performance scenario in stone. This means Do Not change even the most minute details in your test case: All transactions flows, all mixtures, all think times, all behaviors - no variations at this point. This is the "constant" in your experiment and it is the only way you can reproduce and compare results. Any deviation within the test case scenario will result in different throughputs which affect resource patterns. Not following this tip will surely lead you on a collision course with Analysis Paralysis!
Architectural Diagram - Identify Potential Bottlenecks by Visualization
Make sure you ask for and receive an architectural diagram of the entire deployment. Map out business transactions to resources utilized within the environment. Make sure you understand all the transaction flows, from front end load balancers down to the shared resource database. Study the deployment and hook up precise monitors, leaving no blind spots. Visualize where contentions or bottlenecks COULD occur. Each resource of the environment must be monitored for signs of saturation. In reality, it's in the identification of where to look for bottlenecks that is the more difficult task. Alleviating these bottlenecks is the easy (and most rewarding) part. But without an architectural map, your journey will easily end by the frustration of getting lost in the dark.
Tuning Hardware and Software Level Bottlenecks
"Tuning is an Art". "Tuning is a Science". Which is it? Hardware servers are restricted by the physical resources (disk io/memory, cpu). Software servers are much more configurable and this is where expertise in needed for tuning. Performance engineers must understand the workings of a "server" in thread pools, caching policies, memory allocations, connection pooling, etc. Tuning is a balancing act. It's the situation where you tune the software servers in order to take full advantage of hardware resources, without causing a flood. Simply opening up all the gates isn't going to help when the backend is saturated with requests. Tuning must be conservative, weighing all the benefits as well as the consequences.
Proof: Reproducible Results
Typically, a seasoned performance engineer will tune a layer of the environment only when the results are reproducible. Always use trends instead of points in time, mere spikes are not cause for architectural changes. As a rule of thumb, you should reproduce 3 times before you make a change. Sometimes this takes a while... So be prepared to be patient. For example, if you are emulating a production login rate of 3 users per second, but the performance deterioration doesn't occur until you have 2000 active users, it will take a while to see it. Making an unnecessary change simply muddies the waters, keep it clear and recreate those exact conditions.
Tune the First Occurring Bottleneck
Make sure you tune the layer which showed contention earliest in the performance test, not the first identified bottleneck. When monitoring a large complex system, there are many counters to keep in your sights. Don't jump the gun and tune a thread pool when you see it becomes saturated, this could actually be a symptom of the problem, not the root cause. Correlate (using graphing is easiest) the point of time of degradation of performance to the first saturation within the environment. Understandably, there is a ton of information to look at - keep it simpler by just looking at the free resources based on percentages (free threads, free cache, and free file descriptors) and this will allow you to spot a bottleneck quicker. When a free resource runs low, there's a possible bottleneck. Understand the resource utilization and free resources will allow you to understand a bottleneck before it affects the end-user response time. In other words, watch as the resource becomes utilized. When free gets low, keep it on your radar for a cause of performance degradation.
Iterative Tuning Process
Tuning is an iterative process. Know that once you have alleviated one bottleneck, you will surely encounter another one. But do not fret... All aspects of servers are limited and since nothing is infinite you will eventually reach the end. Tuning manipulates the gates, requests which don't have a resource are queued and must wait to be serviced. Tuning becomes a process you must repeat until the workload reaches target capacity with acceptable response times.
Validate, validate, validate. Just as important as recreating and tuning based upon proof is validating that the tuning change had the desired effect. Did it indeed impact scalability in a positive way? Often, performance engineers test out theories. And sometimes, the validation stage will cause a change to be reverted. It's ok that not every change will make it to production. The key is to use a very scientific approach in which you prove the result as well as the requirement.
I hope you gleaned some pearls of wisdom.
Creating the load and emulating production workload is a means to end - you obviously need to create the load before you can capacity plan or understand the scalability of the deployment. But it is the skills in performance analysis that are most valuable. The performance engineer who walks into a project, takes the lead, wastes no time in learning the environment, creates and/or executes the realistic tests, identifies current capacity, isolates and alleviates bottlenecks, documents results, mentors the juniors, and clearly and effectively communicates with everyone from developers on up to the CIO/CTO's, is truly a GOLD MINE.
Becoming a true performance engineer is no easy task, but it's well worth the effort!
"We work in the area of Big Data analytics and Big Data analytics is a very crowded space - you have Hadoop, ETL, warehousing, visualization and there's a lot of effort trying to get these tools to talk to each other," explained Mukund Deshpande, head of the Analytics practice at Accelerite, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 1, 2016 12:30 AM EDT Reads: 700
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited t...
Jul. 1, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 593
IoT offers a value of almost $4 trillion to the manufacturing industry through platforms that can improve margins, optimize operations & drive high performance work teams. By using IoT technologies as a foundation, manufacturing customers are integrating worker safety with manufacturing systems, driving deep collaboration and utilizing analytics to exponentially increased per-unit margins. However, as Benoit Lheureux, the VP for Research at Gartner points out, “IoT project implementers often ...
Jun. 30, 2016 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 742
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jun. 30, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,034
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, provided an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profession...
Jun. 30, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 518
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Jun. 30, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,286
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Jun. 30, 2016 02:45 PM EDT Reads: 399
When people aren’t talking about VMs and containers, they’re talking about serverless architecture. Serverless is about no maintenance. It means you are not worried about low-level infrastructural and operational details. An event-driven serverless platform is a great use case for IoT. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Animesh Singh, an STSM and Lead for IBM Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, will detail how to build a distributed serverless, polyglot, microservices framework using open source tec...
Jun. 30, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 731
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jun. 30, 2016 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,370
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Jun. 30, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,530
"delaPlex is a software development company. We do team-based outsourcing development," explained Mark Rivers, COO and Co-founder of delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jun. 30, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 643
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jun. 30, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 662
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jun. 30, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 756
The idea of comparing data in motion (at the sensor level) to data at rest (in a Big Data server warehouse) with predictive analytics in the cloud is very appealing to the industrial IoT sector. The problem Big Data vendors have, however, is access to that data in motion at the sensor location. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Scott Allen, CMO of FreeWave, discussed how as IoT is increasingly adopted by industrial markets, there is going to be an increased demand for sensor data from the outermos...
Jun. 30, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 490
CenturyLink has announced that application server solutions from GENBAND are now available as part of CenturyLink’s Networx contracts. The General Services Administration (GSA)’s Networx program includes the largest telecommunications contract vehicles ever awarded by the federal government. CenturyLink recently secured an extension through spring 2020 of its offerings available to federal government agencies via GSA’s Networx Universal and Enterprise contracts. GENBAND’s EXPERiUS™ Application...
Jun. 30, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 505
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jun. 30, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,135
Presidio has received the 2015 EMC Partner Services Quality Award from EMC Corporation for achieving outstanding service excellence and customer satisfaction as measured by the EMC Partner Services Quality (PSQ) program. Presidio was also honored as the 2015 EMC Americas Marketing Excellence Partner of the Year and 2015 Mid-Market East Partner of the Year. The EMC PSQ program is a project-specific survey program designed for partners with Service Partner designations to solicit customer feedbac...
Jun. 30, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 716
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
Jun. 30, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 601
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jun. 30, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,003
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Jun. 30, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 586