|By Steve Weisfeldt||
|February 11, 2013 05:00 PM EST||
Load testing, perhaps more than any other form of testing, is one of those activities that you either choose to do well or risk a result that leaves you worse off than not doing it at all. Half-hearted attempts at load testing yield "results," but too often those results are inaccurate, leading to a false sense of security for anyone who trusts them. This, in turn, leads to the release of applications that are not adequately tested and that experience performance problems soon after entering production.
I was reminded of this not long ago, when I worked with a customer who related an experience that may sound familiar to many of you. This customer was a test engineer for a bank that had recently merged with another bank, effectively doubling their customer base. He was part of a team responsible for load testing a new web application that would serve customers from both of the original banks. Before the application was rolled out, they performed load tests and confirmed that the application could handle the expected number of users with acceptable response times. When the system went live, however, it was slow as molasses - even under user loads less than what the team had tested.
The problem, as you may have guessed, was that the team had not accurately modeled the load. The virtual users used in the testing were a homogenous group that interacted with the system in roughly the same way, from roughly the same geographic locations, at the same network speed. In reality, the customers who came from Bank A tended to perform certain transactions much more frequently than those who came from Bank B. Most of Bank B's customers lived in a different part of the country than those from Bank A. More important, customers from both banks were accessing the application at widely differing connection speeds across a range of browsers. None of these factors were modeled accurately in the load tests the team had performed. In some cases it was because the team simply had not considered them, in others it was because the load testing tool they were using provided no way to handle these differences. In either case, the result was the same; the team had given the "go live" signal to an application that was not ready, basing their decision on inaccurate load test results.
Too often, organizations take a short cut to load testing. They are focused on a single number: how many concurrent users their application will support. As a result they put little effort into script development, and they end up with an unrealistic test - one of little value. I encourage all load testers to think beyond the concurrent users metric and take a closer look at other factors that go into creating a realistic load that will yield more accurate results, including:
- Modeling user activity
- Modeling different connection speeds
- Modeling different browsers and mobile devices
- Modeling geographically distributed users
Parameterizing Scripts to Better Model User Activity
Scripts that simply record a typical user's interaction with a web application and then play it back are not going to yield accurate performance data. As an example, a script that emulates a user logging into a site, searching for a product, placing it in the cart, and checking out does little to test the performance of other user activities such as checking product reviews, accessing detailed specifications, or comparing products.
More important, if the script always logs in as the same user and orders the same product, caching effects will often skew the performance measurements, making response times shorter than they would be under a real-world load. Caching on the web server, application server, and database server all come into play, compounding any caching that is done on the client side.
To minimize caching and similar effects, scripts must be parameterized. In my example above, the script would play back different users searching for different products, and purchasing them via different methods. Ideally the script would use randomization or data customization to fill in every user editable or selectable element on each form of the web application. This script parameterization, combined with creating multiple scripts to address a variety of user interactions, produces a much more realistic user load, and it's a good idea to have a load testing tool that simplifies these tasks.
Generating a Load with a Mixture of Connection Speeds and Network Characteristics
Many testing teams use the fastest available network connections when load testing a server. The belief is that if the application performs well under those connections, it will be guaranteed to work well in production when many real-world users will have slower connections. This is a faulty assumption that leads to performance problems when the application is subjected to real-world users accessing it at a variety of network bandwidths.
Testing with only high-speed connections can mask performance problems that occur only when lower speed connections are used. Slower data speeds will require connections to the server to stay open longer, and eventually the server may reach its limit for the maximum number of open connections.
Of course, testing with only low-speed connections is equally problematic. What's needed is a reasonable mixture of virtual users accessing the server at connection speeds representative of everything from 56K modems for dial-up users to T3 lines.
With more and more users accessing the web via mobile devices, it makes sense to include 3G and 4G connection rates in the mix as well. It's also important to take into account disparities in signal strength that can cause packet loss and increased network latency. Built-in support for incorporating these factors in performance testing is increasingly important, particularly for web applications that serve a high percentage of mobile users.
Emulating Different Browsers and Native Mobile Apps
Interestingly enough (and often surprising to some), not all browsers support the same number of concurrent HTTP connections. This obviously needs to be thought of as well - if a load test models the entire user population accessing a web application with a single browser that supports four connections per server, it neglects the effects of browsers that use twice that number.
This leads to a situation similar to the one that arises with inaccurate modeling of connection speeds - with more concurrent connections, it is not unusual to see slowdowns as a server reaches its limit for simultaneous connections. To minimize these effects, load tests should apply a variety of browser profiles during playback, so that the tests identify the traffic as originating from a realistic mixture of different browsers, including mobile browsers.
Mobile devices, in fact, present a new set of challenges for load testers (see Best Practices for Load Testing Mobile Applications, Part 1 and Best Practices for Load Testing Mobile Applications, Part 2), aside from the network connection issues I've already covered. Many companies now have a separate mobile version of their site, with content tailored specifically for mobile users. Again, to perform a valid load test on such sites, a test engineer must be able to override the browser identification during playback so that the virtual user appears to be using a mobile browser.
What about native mobile applications? There is no browser involved, so you'll need a testing solution that can record, parameterize, and play back the network traffic originating from the mobile device. For some cases this can be done via a proxy, but for some apps this is not an available option. These apps may call for a tunneling approach in which the testing tool acts as a DNS server. Even if you're not facing this situation today, you may want to see if your testing tool supports this feature so you're prepared when you do need it.
Generating a Geographically Distributed Load
Unless your end-user community is accessing your application from a single location, initiating tests solely from inside your datacenter is unlikely to represent a realistic load. Such tests fail to take into account the effects of third-party servers and content delivery networks that may sit between your users and your web application.
Using the cloud to generate load as part of your testing can better model a geographically distributed user base, one that may include users from around the world, enabling test engineers to generate realistic, large-scale tests across multiple regions. Cloud testing complements internal, lab-based tests and ideally test scripts from one domain are reused in the other. With separate performance metrics for each geographic region in hand, engineers can see where performance issues are likely to arise on a region-by-region basis.
If users are accessing your web site from all over the world, load testing from the cloud helps you model that reality. When this capability is combined with tests that incorporate parameterized scripts, browser differences, support for mobile apps, and a variety of connection speeds and network effects, you can trust the accuracy of your test results.
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
May. 24, 2015 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 5,073
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "First Containers & Microservices Conference" will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. The “Second Containers & Microservices Conference” will take place November 3-5, 2015, at Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
May. 24, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,792
Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? In this Power Panel at DevOps Summit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise and president of Intellyx, panelists will peel away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you'll have no problem fil...
May. 24, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,664
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
May. 24, 2015 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 6,401
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
May. 24, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,330
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
May. 24, 2015 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,056
The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
May. 24, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,036
In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect at GE, and Ibrahim Gokcen, who leads GE's advanced IoT analytics, focused on the Internet of Things / Industrial Internet and how to make it operational for business end-users. Learn about the challenges posed by machine and sensor data and how to marry it with enterprise data. They also discussed the tips and tricks to provide the Industrial Internet as an end-user consumable service using Big Data Analytics and Industrial Cloud.
May. 24, 2015 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 5,421
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
May. 24, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,184
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
May. 24, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,584
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
May. 24, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,116
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
May. 24, 2015 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,057
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.
May. 24, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,741
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
May. 24, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,283
Building low-cost wearable devices can enhance the quality of our lives. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Sai Yamanoor, Embedded Software Engineer at Altschool, provided an example of putting together a small keychain within a $50 budget that educates the user about the air quality in their surroundings. He also provided examples such as building a wearable device that provides transit or recreational information. He then reviewed the resources available to build wearable devices at home including open source hardware, the raw materials required and the options available to power s...
May. 24, 2015 03:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,823
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
May. 24, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,331
DevOps tends to focus on the relationship between Dev and Ops, putting an emphasis on the ops and application infrastructure. But that’s changing with microservices architectures. In her session at DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks, will focus on how microservices are changing the underlying architectures needed to scale, secure and deliver applications based on highly distributed (micro) services and why that means an expansion into “the network” for DevOps.
May. 24, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,817
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happens, where data lives and where the interface lies. For instance, it's a mix of architectural styles ...
May. 24, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 5,625
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo – to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY – is now accepting Hackathon proposals. Hackathon sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem. At Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley, IBM held the Bluemix Developer Playground on November 5 and ElasticBox held the DevOps Hackathon on November 6. Both events took place on the expo floor. The Bluemix Developer Playground, for developers of all levels, highlighted the ease of use of...
May. 24, 2015 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,186
We’re no longer looking to the future for the IoT wave. It’s no longer a distant dream but a reality that has arrived. It’s now time to make sure the industry is in alignment to meet the IoT growing pains – cooperate and collaborate as well as innovate. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, will examine the key ingredients to IoT success and identify solutions to challenges the industry is facing. The deep industry expertise behind this presentation will provide attendees with a leading edge view of rapidly emerging IoT oppor...
May. 24, 2015 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,711