Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Carmen Gonzalez, Jim Kaskade, Pat Romanski, Andreas Grabner

Related Topics: Containers Expo Blog, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, @CloudExpo, @BigDataExpo, SDN Journal

Containers Expo Blog: Article

SSD vs. HDD – The Battle for the Future of Storage

Look to the latest economically sensible storage solutions that are answering today’s performance and capacity calls

I have been working for technology companies for 33 years now, so I don't know why I'm always surprised at the technology myths that proliferate. For example, there is a popular notion running around that Solid State Drives (SSDs) will replace Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) as the dominant storage media. So, which will win? Let me give you my answer upfront before I take you through my arguments: both win, and the market size for both continues to grow.

As I offer up this data and this perspective, I'll repeat some advice I received early in my career. A mentor once told me, when searching for the truth in business and technology "look to the economics" (maybe my version of "go to the mattresses" for you "Godfather" fans).

Here is what I read and hear on a regular basis regarding the battle of HDDs and SSDs:

  • SSDs run circles around HDDs for performance
  • SSDs will soon replace HDDs
  • The improving density of SSDs will collapse the current cost premium to HDDs

Sound familiar? Well, as with most claims of this ilk, there are some elements of truth to them but each of these statements goes too far when viewed in light of some data.

Yes, it's true that SSDs are fundamentally faster than HDDs. This is particularly true of random I/O data reading (as with databases). With large block sequential data (i.e., rich media like video), however, this difference tends to be very small.

Replacing HDD?
Here's a claim where the data just doesn't add up. While the attractiveness of the SSD technology would lead one to believe this, the economics really don't hold up. I should probably point more specifically to NAND flash here (the "solid state" in SSDs) because another solid state technology might actually achieve this, but that appears to be years and tens of billions of dollars away.

Let's talk for a minute about the world's demand for storage. Last year approximately 2500 exabytes of data was created and/or replicated. And...this is doubling about every two years. This needs to be serviced largely by HDDs and SSDs. Last year, the NAND flash industry produced somewhere between 30 and 40 exabytes of storage; with somewhere around 3.5 exabytes finding its way into SSDs (the balance in phones, tablets, cameras, etc.). What is that, 1.4% of our total storage need? But production is ramping up... at a capital cost of about $1.5 billion per Exabyte (semiconductor fabs are expensive)! So, from an available supply perspective, SSDs replacing HDDs seems implausible.

Improving Technology Makes SSDs Cheaper
Agree. The NAND flash technology point is at 21nm line widths with plans to move to 19, then 16 nm. Storage density is further improving with the use of multi-level cell (MLC) capabilities vs single-level cell (SLC). This is bringing down the cost of solid state storage in much the same way the areal density increases seen in HDDs brought down the cost of hard drive storage.

Notice how I said "brought" down (i.e., past tense)? Because a real density growth in the hard drive industry has slowed to a crawl, the rapid erosion of cost/Gb has also slowed to a crawl. Now, the HDD industry needs to move to its next technology (HAMR?) to continue to take cost out and HAMR is a number of years away. HAMR will require significant capital investment by the HDD companies. Significant capital investment will be required anyway to keep up with storage demand (even more so with slowing areal density growth). This all spells out a flattening of HDD costs for the foreseeable future. Some would speculate that a renewed interest in improving the utilization of HDD capacity is an artifact of these economics.

Here's what's preventing the complete collapse of the price difference between the two technologies. The NAND flash suppliers have a similar problem as the HDD manufacturers... the implications of shrinking technology geometries. As the line widths shrink, the ability of flash to sustain multiple write-erase cycles declines. To make up for this deficiency, sophisticated error-correction algorithms and "brute force" overprovisioning (to allow some cells to wear out) are being used. This and the above mentioned semiconductor fab costs tend to mitigate the progress SSDs are making in closing the cost gap to HDDs.

Having made my arguments that SSDs won't take over the world, I have to say that IT solutions need this technology. I think you can see that SSDs aren't the answer to all our storage needs, but they allow us to address a crying storage requirement. At a high level, storage is called on to produce two key deliverables:

  • Make data available to an application or user in an appropriate timeframe (i.e., performance) and in today's environment this need is growing.
  • Store data reliably (i.e., capacity) and in today's environment this need is growing

By and large, to date, systems with hard drives have been architected to deliver both of these capabilities. It's hard to argue that hard drives haven't done a good job of delivering affordable capacity. But to deliver against the performance requirements of IT solutions, hard drives:

  • Have been developed with higher speeds, but arguably little progress has been made in the last ten years
  • Have been "short stroked" (a technique limiting the stroke of the actuator to improve performance)
  • Have been grouped together to allow striping of data across a large number of drives to aggregate their performance.

With each of these approaches the user suffers from higher power requirements, and with the last two approaches their system has been overprovisioned (leaving stranded capacity) to deliver performance. This all adds up to significant system cost that can be avoided with new storage architectures.

Here's where SSDs come in. SSDs are proving to be a technology answer to the new generation of storage needs, both the growing performance and the growing capacity requirements. Here's the simple, logical way to think about SSDs and HDDs and their role in storage solutions. Use the right tool for the job. That is, take advantage of SSDs for performance (particularly small block, random I/O) and HDDs for capacity.

You might challenge me now and ask, "Does adding SSDs (Flash) to IT solutions make economic sense?" SSDs are expensive, but, used appropriately, SSDs can also minimize the number of HDDs required in a given solution. The secret is in optimizing the use of both, that is, avoid overprovisioning of both. Thin provisioning of capacity has become popular as a cost saver. Similarly, thin provisioning of performance is a similar cost saver. (This is a benefit of virtualized caching or tiering capabilities of newer storage solutions.)

I'll close with a few proof points. Look to the latest economically sensible storage solutions that are answering today's performance and capacity calls. The vast majority of affordable "Ultrabooks" incorporate both flash and hard drive technology, as does Apple's latest "Fusion" drive.

More Stories By Tom Major

Tom Major is President of Starboard Storage. He joined Starboard from Seagate Technology, where he was senior vice president of Product Management and Business Operations. Before Seagate, Major worked at LeftHand Networks as chief strategy officer. Previous positions included vice president and general manager, Disk Business Unit, at StorageTek and vice president of Network Storage Marketing at HP, where he spent 21 years.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential Internet of Things Brand by Onalytica in the ‘The Internet of Things Landscape 2015: Top 100 Individuals and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed Twitter conversations around the #IoT debate to uncover the most influential brands and individuals driving the conversation. Onalytica captured data from 56,224 users. The PageRank based methodology they use to extract influencers on a particular topic (tweets mentioning #InternetofThings or #IoT in this ...
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Intelligent machines are here. Robots, self-driving cars, drones, bots and many IoT devices are becoming smarter with Machine Learning. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Sudha Jamthe, CEO of IoTDisruptions.com, will discuss the next wave of business disruption at the junction of IoT and AI, impacting many industries and set to change our lives, work and world as we know it.
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, will discuss the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They will also review two "free infrastruct...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, will discuss how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team a...
Join IBM November 2 at 19th Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and learn how to go beyond multi-speed it to bring agility to traditional enterprise applications. Technology innovation is the driving force behind modern business and enterprises must respond by increasing the speed and efficiency of software delivery. The challenge is that existing enterprise applications are expensive to develop and difficult to modernize. This often results in what Gartner calls...
Although it has gained significant traction in the consumer space, IoT is still in the early stages of adoption in enterprises environments. However, many companies are working on initiatives like Industry 4.0 that includes IoT as one of the key disruptive technologies expected to reshape businesses of tomorrow. The key challenges will be availability, robustness and reliability of networks that connect devices in a business environment. Software Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) is expected to...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
The Internet of Things (IoT), in all its myriad manifestations, has great potential. Much of that potential comes from the evolving data management and analytic (DMA) technologies and processes that allow us to gain insight from all of the IoT data that can be generated and gathered. This potential may never be met as those data sets are tied to specific industry verticals and single markets, with no clear way to use IoT data and sensor analytics to fulfill the hype being given the IoT today.
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abil...
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Streamlyzer will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Streamlyzer is a powerful analytics for video streaming service that enables video streaming providers to monitor and analyze QoE (Quality-of-Experience) from end-user devices in real time.
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Established in 1998, Calsoft is a leading software product engineering Services Company specializing in Storage, Networking, Virtualization and Cloud business verticals. Calsoft provides End-to-End Product Development, Quality Assurance Sustenance, Solution Engineering and Professional Services expertise to assist customers in achieving their product development and business goals. The company's deep domain knowledge of Storage, Virtualization, Networking and Cloud verticals helps in delivering ...