Click here to close now.


Java IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Dana Gardner, Orlando Bayter, Hurricane Labs

Blog Feed Post

An Introduction to SAS for R Programmers

by Joseph Rickert Life decisions are usually much too complicated to be attributed to any single cause, but one important reason that I am here at Revolution today is that I ignored suggestions from well-meaning faculty back in graduate school to work more in SAS rather than doing everything in R. There was a heavy emphasis on SAS then: the faculty were worried about us getting jobs. This was before the rise of the data scientist and the the corporate model my professors had in mind was: PhD statisticians do statistics and everyone else writes SAS code. I would not be surprised if this is still not the prevailing model in traditional Statistics programs. My bet is there are statisticians everywhere who have yet to come to grips with the concept of a “data scientist”.  Anyway, because of the great cosmic balance, or the bad karma that comes from ignoring well-intentioned advice and the fact that there are quite a few companies out there that want to convert their SAS code to R, I occasionally get to look at SAS code. In the process of interviewing candidates for this kind of work it struck me that there are many people coming to data science through the programming or machine learning routes who have some R knowledge as well as experience with Java, Python and C++ who have never worked with SAS. To this group I offer the following very brief “Introduction to SAS for R Programmers”. So what is SAS exactly? Originally, SAS  stood for “Statistical Analysis System”. Indeed, towards the beginning of his invaluable book, “R for SAS and SPSS Users”, Bob Muenchen characterizes SAS as a system for statistical computation that has five main components: A data management system for reading, transforming and organizing data (The Data Step) A large number of procedures (PROCs) for statistical analysis and graphics The Output Delivery System for extracting output from PROCs and customizing printed output A macro language for programming in the data step and calling PROCS The Interactive Matrix programming language (IML) for developing new algorithms SAS is not a single programming language. It is an entire ecosystem of products (not all seamlessly integrated) that contains at least two languages! While becoming a competent SAS programmer clearly requires mastering an impressive number of skills, quite a bit can be accomplished in SAS with a basic knowledge of the Data Step and the more common procedures (PROCs) in the base and Stat packages. Moreover, as it turns out, these two foundational components of SAS are the very two things that an R programmer is likely to find most strange about SAS. There is really only one data structure in SAS, a file with rows of observations and columns of variables that always gets processed by means of an implied loop. A Data Step “program” starts with the first row of a SAS file executes all of the code it encounters until it comes to a run; statement then looks at the second row of the file and runs through the code again. The Data Step proceeds sequentially through the entire file in this fashion. An excellent presentation from Steven J. First illustrates the process nicely. See slides 36 through 45 for an example of SAS code with a very clear PowerPoint animation of how this all works. It is true that SAS programmers can work with arrays, but this is actually a computational sleight of hand. Arrays are actually special columns in a data set. R programmers are used to an interactive computational experience. Within a session, at any point in time the objects that resulted from a previous computation are available as inputs to the next calculation. There is always a sense of moving forward. If you didn’t compute something as part of the last function you ran, just write another function and compute it now. In SAS, however, one uses the various PROCS to conjure the results in a methodical, premeditated way. For example, something like the following code would run a simple regression in SAS sending the results to the console. proc reg data = myData;model Y = X;run:  However, if you wanted to have the fitted values and residuals available for a further computation, you would have to rerun the regression specifying an output file and the keywords for computing the fitted values and residuals. proc reg DATA = myData;MODEL Y = X / stb clb;OUTPUT OUT=OUTREG P=PREDCIT R=RESED;run; Kathy Welch a statistical consultant at the University of Michigan, provides a very clear example of this linear way of working. Most SAS programming probably gets done by writing SAS macros. Look at Bob Muenchen’s book (or this article) for practical examples of R functions to replace SAS macros. For more advanced work,the SAS/Tool Kit (yet another add on) allows SAS probrammers to write custom procedures. But, from a R programmer’s perspective probably the most exciting SAS product is the IML System which provides the ability to call R from within an IML procedure. The documentation  provides an example of transferring data stored in SAS/IML vectors to R, running a model in R and then, importing the results back into SAS/IML vectors. Actually, if you are an R programmer, all you might really want to do is import data from SAS to R. Thre are at least five ways to do this using functions from various open source R libraries. (Note that some of these methods require preparation steps to be done in SAS.) The document “An Introduction to S and The Hmisc and Design Libraries” on CRAN is also helpful. However, I recommend using rxImport feature in RevoScaleR package that ships with Revolution R Enterprise. Importing a SAS file with rxImport looks like this: rxImport(inData=data,outFile="sasFileName") Not only is it a one step process that does not require having SAS installed on your system, but it reads .sas7bdat files directly into Revolution Analytics' .xdf file format. You can easily work with SAS files that are too large to fit into memory Once in .xdf file format the data can be worked on with RevoScaleR’s parallel external memory algorithms (PEMAs) or written to .csv files or data frames.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By David Smith

David Smith is Vice President of Marketing and Community at Revolution Analytics. He has a long history with the R and statistics communities. After graduating with a degree in Statistics from the University of Adelaide, South Australia, he spent four years researching statistical methodology at Lancaster University in the United Kingdom, where he also developed a number of packages for the S-PLUS statistical modeling environment. He continued his association with S-PLUS at Insightful (now TIBCO Spotfire) overseeing the product management of S-PLUS and other statistical and data mining products.<

David smith is the co-author (with Bill Venables) of the popular tutorial manual, An Introduction to R, and one of the originating developers of the ESS: Emacs Speaks Statistics project. Today, he leads marketing for REvolution R, supports R communities worldwide, and is responsible for the Revolutions blog. Prior to joining Revolution Analytics, he served as vice president of product management at Zynchros, Inc. Follow him on twitter at @RevoDavid

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect their organization.
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
Akana has released Envision, an enhanced API analytics platform that helps enterprises mine critical insights across their digital eco-systems, understand their customers and partners and offer value-added personalized services. “In today’s digital economy, data-driven insights are proving to be a key differentiator for businesses. Understanding the data that is being tunneled through their APIs and how it can be used to optimize their business and operations is of paramount importance,” said Alistair Farquharson, CTO of Akana.
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, analyzed how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Payment...
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
"Optimal Design is a technology integration and product development firm that specializes in connecting devices to the cloud," stated Joe Wascow, Co-Founder & CMO of Optimal Design, in this interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CommVault has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. A singular vision – a belief in a better way to address current and future data management needs – guides CommVault in the development of Singular Information Management® solutions for high-performance data protection, universal availability and simplified management of data on complex storage networks. CommVault's exclusive single-platform architecture gives companies unp...
Electric Cloud and Arynga have announced a product integration partnership that will bring Continuous Delivery solutions to the automotive Internet-of-Things (IoT) market. The joint solution will help automotive manufacturers, OEMs and system integrators adopt DevOps automation and Continuous Delivery practices that reduce software build and release cycle times within the complex and specific parameters of embedded and IoT software systems.
"ciqada is a combined platform of hardware modules and server products that lets people take their existing devices or new devices and lets them be accessible over the Internet for their users," noted Geoff Engelstein of ciqada, a division of Mars International, in this interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dyn, the worldwide leader in Internet Performance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dyn is a cloud-based Internet Performance company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure for an exceptional end-user experience. Through a world-class network and unrivaled, objective intelligence into Internet conditions, Dyn ensures traffic gets delivered faster, safer, and more reliably than ever.