|By Manuel Weiss||
|September 16, 2013 01:00 PM EDT||
After reading Chad Fowlers excellent blogpost about immutable deployments at 6Wunderkinder, we wanted to share our views on immutability in infrastructure.
Our definition of Immutable Infrastructure:
- Automate the setup and deployment for every part and every layer of your infrastructure.
- Never change any part of your system once it is deployed. If you need to change it, deploy a new system.
For example, instead of deploying into an existing EC2 instance, start a new server, deploy there and point your load balancer to the new server. Then remove the old server.
Replacing a system at the lowest level you can forces you to automate every deployment step.
Immutable infrastructure and Continuous deployment work great together. Completely replacing, instead of updating, an existing part of your infrastructure makes your deployments less complex.
Test driven development, Continuous Deployment and Immutable Infrastructure are strategies we have been using on the Codeship for a long time.
For Immutable Infrastructure you need cloud servers and a virtualised environment.
Cloud servers are building blocks
In his AWS re:Invent Keynote Werner Vogels talked about Cloud servers as building blocks for larger systems. Jamie Begin wrote a great blog post on cloud serves as building blocks, based on the Keynote.
Today cloud instances are still used like physical hardware in the past. You set it up once and update it whenever necessary. The problem is that cloud servers are not meant to be reliable or durable.
Their advantage is that they are standardised and easy to replace. Cloud servers are like Lego pieces that can be changed whenever necessary. If you want to have a different color or the lego piece breaks, just put in a new one. You wouldn't repair a lego piece, would you?
You wouldn't repair a lego piece. Just grab a new one.
Our Experience with Immutable infrastructure
Our web application, the Mothership, is hosted on Heroku and has therefore always been immutable. Whenever we deploy a new version, Heroku builds the Slug and replaces current instances with it. We have enabled Herokus Zero Downtime support.
Our test server infrastructure, the Checkbot, is hosted on AWS since August 2012. Whenever we want to change the test servers, we build a completely new Amazon AMI, test it and replace the old machines with the new AMI. We will go into more detail about this in our next blogpost.
By replacing every part of our infrastructure, often several times a day, we feel very comfortable with releasing changes. This workflow allows us to improve our service very quickly.
Advantages of an Immutable Infrastructure
There are many more advantages to Immutable Infrastructure than the following, but we have found these to be the most important ones to us:
- Going back to an old version is easy, as you have the old image available.
- Every change to the infrastructure needs to be in a script. Any server can be removed at any time and will take manual changes with it.
- It's easy to have a production-like system on development machines.
- You have an incentive to speed up the time your servers need to be built. We will talk about this in future blogposts.
- Setting up staging systems is easy and can be automated.
- Testing the new infrastructure in isolation is possible.
Challenges with Immutable Infrastructure
Of course this approach also has its challenges. Especially around tooling.
- Better and standardised tooling is necessary, although new tools like Packer make it easier.
- Setting up automation for immutable infrastructure has higher costs at the beginning.
- Fixing problems is slower as you can't just SSH into an existing server. It needs to be redeployed.
- There needs to be a way to reliably replace a server without impacting the whole system. Queuing and proxies that can store requests for a while are helpful.
- Replacing databases continuously is hard.
Fixing broken servers instead of replacing them is a waste of time. It slows down the development and deployment cycle.
Test-Driven Development, Continuous Deployment and Immutable Infrastructure are practices every team should use. Together these practices help build reliable and high quality software that can be changed at any time. Being able to go back to an old version of your system in seconds allows you to experiment and innovate at a much faster pace.
In our next blog post we will show you in detail how we deploy our testing infrastructure several times a day. In future blog posts we will introduce Packer, Docker and other tools and show you how to rebuild your infrastructure constantly. Stay tuned!
My team embarked on building a data lake for our sales and marketing data to better understand customer journeys. This required building a hybrid data pipeline to connect our cloud CRM with the new Hadoop Data Lake. One challenge is that IT was not in a position to provide support until we proved value and marketing did not have the experience, so we embarked on the journey ourselves within the product marketing team for our line of business within Progress. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Sum...
Mar. 28, 2017 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,071
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a client-oriented software development company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software company that develops and delivers turn-key mobile apps, websites, web services, and complex softw...
Mar. 28, 2017 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,876
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
Mar. 28, 2017 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,328
What sort of WebRTC based applications can we expect to see over the next year and beyond? One way to predict development trends is to see what sorts of applications startups are building. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arin Sime, founder of WebRTC.ventures, will discuss the current and likely future trends in WebRTC application development based on real requests for custom applications from real customers, as well as other public sources of information,
Mar. 28, 2017 12:45 AM EDT Reads: 961
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Mar. 27, 2017 09:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,639
Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, represent...
Mar. 27, 2017 08:15 PM EDT Reads: 6,326
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ocean9will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ocean9 provides cloud services for Backup, Disaster Recovery (DRaaS) and instant Innovation, and redefines enterprise infrastructure with its cloud native subscription offerings for mission critical SAP workloads.
Mar. 27, 2017 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,198
With billions of sensors deployed worldwide, the amount of machine-generated data will soon exceed what our networks can handle. But consumers and businesses will expect seamless experiences and real-time responsiveness. What does this mean for IoT devices and the infrastructure that supports them? More of the data will need to be handled at - or closer to - the devices themselves.
Mar. 27, 2017 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,597
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Mar. 27, 2017 02:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,982
SYS-CON Events announced today that Linux Academy, the foremost online Linux and cloud training platform and community, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Linux Academy was founded on the belief that providing high-quality, in-depth training should be available at an affordable price. Industry leaders in quality training, provided services, and student certification passes, its goal is to c...
Mar. 27, 2017 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,038
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Mar. 27, 2017 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,086
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Lachapelle, CEO of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), will provide an overview of various initiatives to certifiy the security of connected devices and future trends in ensuring public trust of IoT. Eric Lachapelle is the Chief Executive Officer of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), an international certification body. His role is to help companies and individuals to achieve professional, accredited and worldw...
Mar. 27, 2017 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 759
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
Mar. 27, 2017 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,506
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
Mar. 27, 2017 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,423
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
Mar. 27, 2017 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,401
SYS-CON Events announced today that HTBase will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. HTBase (Gartner 2016 Cool Vendor) delivers a Composable IT infrastructure solution architected for agility and increased efficiency. It turns compute, storage, and fabric into fluid pools of resources that are easily composed and re-composed to meet each application’s needs. With HTBase, companies can quickly prov...
Mar. 27, 2017 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,032
SYS-CON Events announced today that Infranics will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Since 2000, Infranics has developed SysMaster Suite, which is required for the stable and efficient management of ICT infrastructure. The ICT management solution developed and provided by Infranics continues to add intelligence to the ICT infrastructure through the IMC (Infra Management Cycle) based on mathemat...
Mar. 27, 2017 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,182
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a ...
Mar. 27, 2017 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,143
There are 66 million network cameras capturing terabytes of data. How did factories in Japan improve physical security at the facilities and improve employee productivity? Edge Computing reduces possible kilobytes of data collected per second to only a few kilobytes of data transmitted to the public cloud every day. Data is aggregated and analyzed close to sensors so only intelligent results need to be transmitted to the cloud. Non-essential data is recycled to optimize storage.
Mar. 27, 2017 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,135
"I think that everyone recognizes that for IoT to really realize its full potential and value that it is about creating ecosystems and marketplaces and that no single vendor is able to support what is required," explained Esmeralda Swartz, VP, Marketing Enterprise and Cloud at Ericsson, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Mar. 27, 2017 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,373