|By Jason Bloomberg||
|February 22, 2014 04:00 PM EST||
Whether you're a Cloud Computing aficionado, an enterprise integration specialist, or an IT executive, it's hard to have a conversation today without mention of REST. Representational State Transfer, or REST to the cognoscenti, is an architectural style that treats distributed computing problems as though they were Web problems. On the Web you have browsers chatting via HTTP to Web servers, and those servers can work whatever magic they need to in order to serve up the full wealth we've all come to expect from the World Wide Web. Take those basic Web patterns, extend them to general distributed computing problems (including Cloud and legacy integration), and voila! You have REST.
However, while REST has achieved substantial success in simplifying software interfaces and thus facilitating many forms of integration, it is still inherently inflexible. What works well for humans using browsers often doesn't apply to arbitrary software clients. And most fundamentally, REST does not address the most difficult distributed computing challenge of all: how to deal with dynamic business context.
Freeing Ourselves from REST's Four Constraints
The majority of RESTafarians, as the aforementioned cognoscenti have so eloquently dubbed themselves, treat REST as an Application Programming Interface (API) style. After all, REST does call for a uniform interface, a requirement that in one fell swoop addresses many of the knottier problems of Web Services and other, more tightly coupled API styles that came before. Compared to the complexities of Web Service operations or object-oriented remote method calls, REST's uniform interface is the essence of simplicity. Furthermore, there's no question that REST's uniform interface requirement is at the heart of what analysts like to refer to as the API Economy.
But there is more to REST than a uniform interface. In fact, REST isn't an API style at all. It's an architectural style. As an architectural style, REST consists of a set of constraints on software architecture. In other words, feel free to follow what architectural rules you like, but if you want to follow REST you must comply with the following RESTful constraints:
- Separation of resources from representations
- Manipulation of resources by representations
- Self-descriptive messages
- Hypermedia as the engine of application state, or HATEOAS
Let's take a quick tour of these constraints to put them in plain language. In so doing, we'll also why REST fails to adequately address the problem of dynamic business context.
The first constraint is essentially the encapsulation requirement. Resources are abstractions of capabilities on a server, while the representations are what the resources provide to the client. For example, a resource might be a php script running on a Web server, and the representation might be an HTML file it returns when a browser makes a GET request of it. But the browser never, ever gets the php itself; it only sees the HTML. The php is forever hidden from view.
The second constraint calls for the uniform interface. The only way that clients are able to interact with resources is by following hyperlinks in representations - in other words, making GET, POST, PUT, or DELETE requests to the URI of the resource, assuming we're using HTTP as our transport protocol, which we usually are.
The third, self-descriptive message constraint is actually quite straightforward: all the data as well as all the metadata the resource needs to process a request must be contained in that request, and correspondingly, the resource must send all necessary metadata in the representation response to the client that the client will need to understand the representation. In other words, REST requires that there be no out-of-band metadata: information pertinent to the interaction that doesn't actually appear in the interaction. Furthermore, the interaction must be stateless: the resource isn't expected to keep track of any information pertinent to any particular client.
The problem with this third constraint, of course, is that out-of-band metadata is very handy in many situations. Take security-related metadata, for example. REST calls for all such metadata to be in every request, which led to the development of the OAuth (Open Authorization) standard. Yes, OAuth is quite powerful and Web friendly. Yes, OAuth is making inroads into the enterprise. But do you really want to restrict the security protocols for all of your interactions to OAuth and nothing but OAuth? Probably not.
If you have a more complex interaction than a simple request, then the ban on out-of-band metadata becomes increasingly impractical. For example, let's say you're trying to support a complex business process by building a composite application. You're trying to follow REST so you're composing resources. But then you find you need to somehow deal with a range of policies, business rules, or other out-of-band metadata that impact the behavior of your composite application for certain users but not others. REST alone simply doesn't deal well with such complexities.
And then there's the fourth constraint: the dreaded HATEOAS. REST separates state information into two types: resource state and application state. Resource state is shared or persisted state information on the server, while application state is specific to the individual client, who negotiates the application (think abstracted Web site) by following hyperlinks. The HATEOAS constraint hammers home the fact that the point of REST is building distributed hypermedia systems, where the client is responsible for running hypermedia-based applications. In other words, the hypermedia contain the business context for the interactions between client and server.
Hypermedia drive the Web, of course, but once you start breaking down REST's notions of client and server, however, then the power of hypermedia starts to wane. After all, enterprises often want to build or leverage business applications that offer more than a simple Web site, especially when there's a shared business context across nodes, where those nodes are more than just clients and servers. Hypermedia - and REST - simply weren't built for such complex, dynamic situations.
The Devil in the Details
There's a very good reason why REST eschews out-of-band metadata and shared business context beyond the scope of hypermedia: both of these requirements are inherently dynamic, and furthermore, depend upon multiple actors - actors who may change over time. By constraining the architecture to avoid such complexities, REST provides a useful set of simplifications that have provided unquestionable value throughout the API economy.
The challenges in the section above, however, go well beyond REST. The problems we're discussing have plagued software interfaces in general, from the earliest screen-scraping programs to object-oriented APIs to Web Services to today's RESTful APIs. The entire notion of a software interface is an agreement between the people building the software provider and consumer endpoints that the interface behaves a particular way. Loose coupling, after all, relies upon an interface contract that fixes the behavior of the API so that the parties involved can make various decisions about their software under the covers without breaking the interaction. But woe to those who dare to change the contract, or who want to consider metadata the contract knows nothing about!
Out-of-band metadata and business context outside hypermedia applications are by definition exterior to the contract, and thus aren't amenable to any distributed computing architectural style that relies too heavily on static APIs. Therein lies the essential challenge of the API. To those analysts trumpeting the API Economy I say: the API Economy has nearly run its course. We've solved as many problems as we're going to solve with contracted software interfaces. But the business stakeholders still aren't happy. After all, it's their context - the business context - that APIs (whether RESTful or not) are so woefully unable to deal with. It's time for another approach.
The EnterpriseWeb Take
I'm not saying that we don't need APIs, of course, or that REST doesn't serve a useful purpose. I am declaring, however, that something critically important is missing from this picture. APIs are far too static to address issues of dynamic business context. We tried to address these issues with the SOA intermediary (typically an ESB), where the intermediary executed policy-based routing and transformation rules to abstract a set of inflexible Service interfaces, thus providing the illusion of flexibility, much as a flip deck provides the illusion of motion. But even the most successful implementers of SOA were still unable to deal with most out-of-band metadata - and dynamic business context? That nut no one has been able to crack.
What we really need is an entirely different kind of intermediary. A smarter intermediary that knows how to deal with all types of metadata and furthermore, can resolve the more difficult challenge of business context - in real time, where the business lives. In the next issue of Loosely-Coupled I'll discuss how such a smarter intermediary might actually work. And naturally, if you want to see one in action, drop us a line.
Image credit: lin440315
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jul. 1, 2016 08:30 PM EDT Reads: 790
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jul. 1, 2016 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 765
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 6thInternet of @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jul. 1, 2016 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 535
Presidio has received the 2015 EMC Partner Services Quality Award from EMC Corporation for achieving outstanding service excellence and customer satisfaction as measured by the EMC Partner Services Quality (PSQ) program. Presidio was also honored as the 2015 EMC Americas Marketing Excellence Partner of the Year and 2015 Mid-Market East Partner of the Year. The EMC PSQ program is a project-specific survey program designed for partners with Service Partner designations to solicit customer feedbac...
Jul. 1, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 785
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, provided an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profession...
Jul. 1, 2016 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 636
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
Jul. 1, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 238
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Jul. 1, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 313
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jul. 1, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,422
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 336
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,048
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm ...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 702
Apixio Inc. has raised $19.3 million in Series D venture capital funding led by SSM Partners with participation from First Analysis, Bain Capital Ventures and Apixio’s largest angel investor. Apixio will dedicate the proceeds toward advancing and scaling products powered by its cognitive computing platform, further enabling insights for optimal patient care. The Series D funding comes as Apixio experiences strong momentum and increasing demand for its HCC Profiler solution, which mines unstruc...
Jul. 1, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 687
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Jul. 1, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 657
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Jul. 1, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 576
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jul. 1, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,104
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Jul. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 531
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jul. 1, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,200
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
Jul. 1, 2016 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 695
IoT offers a value of almost $4 trillion to the manufacturing industry through platforms that can improve margins, optimize operations & drive high performance work teams. By using IoT technologies as a foundation, manufacturing customers are integrating worker safety with manufacturing systems, driving deep collaboration and utilizing analytics to exponentially increased per-unit margins. However, as Benoit Lheureux, the VP for Research at Gartner points out, “IoT project implementers often ...
Jul. 1, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 812
When people aren’t talking about VMs and containers, they’re talking about serverless architecture. Serverless is about no maintenance. It means you are not worried about low-level infrastructural and operational details. An event-driven serverless platform is a great use case for IoT. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Animesh Singh, an STSM and Lead for IBM Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, will detail how to build a distributed serverless, polyglot, microservices framework using open source tec...
Jul. 1, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 817