Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz, Mehdi Daoudi

Related Topics: Java IoT, ColdFusion, Adobe Flex

Java IoT: Article

Creating a Flashy Monitoring Application

Building an application in Flex using declarative GUI language MXML mixed with ActionScript 3 and XML

Do you know what's the main goal of any gas station owner? To get lots of trucking accounts. Business from small car drivers is worth pennies, and it gets on my nerves to hear them ask again and again, "Five dollars of regular, please." Trucks are different. They usually pump in a couple of hundreds of gallons at a time. For instance, here comes a flashy 18-wheeler with a sign "Software Delivered." These guys ship reusable open source components around the globe. As a former programmer, I was trying to play it smart by asking why they don't just let people download these components from the Internet? But the smiley truckers (many of whom used to be software developers too) just shrug and tell me that nothing beats personal delivery, plus the tips. If you think about it, their ventures are the basis of a new business model. Ten years ago, only professional vendors would create and sell well-documented, working software. Then, independent developers started writing code jointly, but since they did not bother spending time writing documentation and testing, they gave away their software for free, while charging a premium for adding custom features and explaining undocumented ones. Now there is a new trend: delivering software to your doorsteps for tips. This makes sense to me - most paid programmers live in Bangalore, and since they can't deliver, they can't compete.

As you might have noticed from my previous article (http://java.sys-con.com/read/204697.htm), I value truckers' opinions, and this time I've asked them to recommend something to use for the development of the front end for my Gas Station monitoring application. They suggested Flex 2 from Adobe. I followed their advice, and here's how I built this application in Flex using the declarative GUI language MXML mixed with ActionScript 3 and XML, which is pretty easy to read for any Java programmer.

Developing with MXML, XML, and ActionScript
Our application will monitor daily operations: gasoline sales and purchases. The output window of this application is pictured in Figure 1.

We'll read the initial gas station activities data from the XML shown in Listing 1 (all the source code for this article is there).

The final version of our application will include a timer with a random data generator that will add new messages to the window from Figure 1, emulating the data feed of three types of messages: sale, purchase, and spill. In real life, I'll be using Java and message-oriented middleware on the server, but this is beyond the scope of this article. The first version of GasStation.mxml (see Listing 2) reads and parses the data from GSActivities.xml using this one liner:

<mx:XML id="activities" source="GSactivity.xml" />

No additional XML parsing is required.

Behind the scenes, Flex creates an object with the reference variable activities, which is used as a data provider for the data grid as follows:

<mx:DataGrid id="messageBook" dataProvider="{activities.message}" width="100%" height="100%">

The dataProvider activities.message represents the <message> XML element from GSActivity.xml, which is displayed as a row in the data grid. The curly braces mean that our XML object is bindable, and that the content of the XML element <message> from Listing 1 will be used to populate each row of the data grid. The ActiveScript renderer function paid(), that is being called for each row, calculates the amount by multiplying the number of gallons and the price per gallon. The <mx:CurrencyFormatter> ensures that the calculated column "paid" is displayed as a dollar amount.

The rest of the code in Listing 2 displays other controls that we'll use for filtering and illustrating master-detail relations later in this section.

Note: The combobox cbMsgTypes is populated from an array messageType, which is marked as [Bindable] and will be used later for filtering the messages in the data grid. Also, since in this version we did not define the data grid column, Paid By, the corresponding data from the data provider are not shown.

Adding a Collection Class
Flex collection classes implement Ilist and ICollectionView interfaces, which allow you to add, remove, and update items in a collection. These interfaces also have methods for dispatching events when the data in the underlying collection change, which becomes handy when you use a collection as a data provider of one of the controls. Just add a new element to such a collection and the data in these controls automatically reflect the change.

There are several ways of using collections as data providers, but I'll just show you one.

Eventually, I'll add a middleman between the XML object and the data grid. Now the data grid's provider will become an XMLListCollection built on top of activities XML:

<mx:XML id="activities" source="GSactivity.xml" />
<mx:XMLListCollection id="msgList" source="{activities.message}" />

<mx:DataGrid id="messageBook" dataProvider="{msgList}">

Just recompile and run the application again - it will display the same window as in Figure 1.

The next step is to allow the user to filter data by the octane (the check boxes) or the message type (the combo box). Let's add a function init() that will be called on by the applicationComplete event to assign the filter function filterMessages() to the collection, and perform filtering. For Java programmers this line is a bit unusual:


In Flex, you can assign the name of the function to an object's property and execute it. The filtering will happen when we call the function refresh() on the collection.

<mx:Application xmlns:mx="http://www.adobe.com/2006/mxml"
backgroundColor="#e0e0FF" applicationComplete="init()">
      private function init():void {
        // assign the filter function
        // perform filtering

      private function filterMessages(item:Object):Boolean{
        // Check every checkbox and the com bobox and
        // populate the datagrid with rows that match
        // selected criteria
    if (item.octane=="87" && this.cbx87.selected)
          return true;
    if (item.octane=="89" && this.cbx89.selected)
          return true;
    if (item.octane=="93" && this.cbx93.selected)
          return true;

        return false;

Run the application after making these changes, and you'll see an empty table on the screen. This is because, when creation of the application was complete, Flash VM called the method init, which assigned the filter function to our XMLListCollection, and then refresh() applied this filter to the each XML node of our collection. Since no checkbox was selected, the function filterMessages correctly returned false to each node, leaving the datagrid empty. To fix this, let's make a slight change in the checkboxes so they will be initially checked off:

      <mx:CheckBox id="cbx93" label="93" selected="true"/>
      <mx:CheckBox id="cbx89" label="89" selected="true"/>
      <mx:CheckBox id="cbx87" label="87" selected="true"/>

Now the program will show all the rows again. Try to uncheck the boxes - nothing happens, because the application doesn't know that it needs to re-apply the filter function to the msgList again. This is an easy fix - let's refresh the msgList on each click on the checkbox:

<mx:CheckBox id="cbx93" label="93" selected="true" click="msgList.refresh()"/>
<mx:CheckBox id="cbx89" label="89" selected="true" click="msgList.refresh()"/>
<mx:CheckBox id="cbx87" label="87" selected="true" click="msgList.refresh()"/>

Filtering by octane number is done. By adding the code snippet below to the beginning of the filterMessages() function, you'll engage filtering by message type according to the combobox selection:

if (cbMsgTypes.selectedLabel !="all" &&
     [email protected]!=cbMsgTypes.selectedLabel ){
     return false;

Please note the @ sign. This is how you access XML attributes (see Listing 1) using E4X notation. The XML elements are accessed using a regular dot notation.

Master-Details Relationships
The turnover rate at my gas station is pretty high, and I often need to teach new gas attendants how to react to different messages when I'm away. So let's add some help to new employees by populating the Required Actions text area, based on the selected message type. This is a typical master-detail relationship task, where the data grid with messages is "the master," and the text box shows details.

We'll start with creating an actions.xml file where we store recommended actions for each message type (see Listing 3).

To read and parse this file into an XML object, we need to write yet another one liner:

<mx:XML id="msgTypes" source="MessageTypes.xml" />

The next step is to specify that selecting a different row in a datagrid should call the function that finds and displays an appropriate message from MessageTypes.xml. Again, E4X makes this job a breeze:

private function getAction():void {
      msgTypes.message.(@[email protected]).actions;

The expression msgTypes.message.(@[email protected]) means the following: select the XML <message> element, which has an attribute type the same as in the selected row in the datagrid in column @msgType. When this XML element is identified, assign its <actions> value to the text area txtAction.

As I stated earlier, changing the selected row in the data grid should initiate the getAction() function call. Let's modify the declaration and add the change event processing:

    <mx:DataGrid id="messageBook" dataProvider="{msgList}" width="100%"
      height="100%" change="getAction()">

If you compile and run this program, then click on a row in a data grid, the action text box will be populated, as shown in Figure 2.

We're almost there. Why almost? Because if the user starts filtering the data by octane or a message type, the actions text field won't be cleaned. To fix this, let's create our own function refreshData() that will not only refresh the XMLListCollection, but also clean the text field:

private function refreshData():void{

Don't forget to replace all calls to msgList.refresh() with refreshData().

Adding a Data Feed
In the real world, all the messages would be pushed to our application by some kind of a messaging program. Another possibility is to have the gas station front end program poll the data during specified intervals from a server-side program that can be written as a JSP, ASP, PHP, or whatever else can bake an HTTPResponse. I've shown an example of Flex-JSP communication at http://webddj.sys-con.com/read/264915.htm. For simplicity, we'll emulate a real-time data feed by using a random number-generator and a timer that will add items to our msgList collection at specified time intervals. Since the data collection will be constantly receiving new data, the output window should reflect this by adding new rows into the data grid. Listing 4 has the final code of the application.

This version of the application was built based on the XML data feed, not because it's the best solution for these kinds of applications, but rather to introduce the reader to the ease of XML parsing with E4X. If the speed of your data feed is crucial, or, as a Java programmer you'd like to have more control over the data, use ActionScript objects as a data feed and ArrayCollection instead of XMLListCollection. This object should define getters providing data for all data grid columns, including the calculated amount for the column Paid. Keeping calculations in the function paid() is not a good idea because the so-called label function is called every time the program inserts a new element into the underlying XML collection. Flash repaints each visible data grid row upon each insertion of a new gas transaction, which means the paid amounts for each visible row will be recalculated.

Granted, you can create simple prototype applications in Flex with few lines of code, but let's not fool ourselves - making efficient applications still requires programming, such as in good old Java. To see this application in action, just point your Web browser at http://samples.faratasystems.com/gasstation/GasStation3.html. Adobe Flash Player 9 is required to run this application, but if you don't have it installed, my HTML will automatically detect it - just follow the prompts and it'll be installed pretty quickly.

For a bit more advanced Flex-Java application read the article "Rich Internet Applications with Adobe Flex 2 and Java" at http://java.sys-con.com/read/210991.htm.

In the past, I used only Java for all my programming needs. But as the medieval saying goes, if the only tool you have is a gasoline hose, every problem looks like a car tank. These days are gone, and now I'm using Java on the server-side and Adobe Flex as a tool for building Rich (as in Bill Gates) Internet Applications.

More Stories By Yakov Fain

Yakov Fain is a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay. He wrote a thousand blogs (http://yakovfain.com) and several books about software development. Yakov authored and co-authored such books as "Angular 2 Development with TypeScript", "Java 24-Hour Trainer", and "Enterprise Web Development". His Twitter tag is @yfain

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