|By Andrew Hillier||
|March 15, 2014 09:15 AM EDT||
Virtualized and private cloud infrastructures are all about sharing resources - compute, storage and network. Optimizing these environments comes down to the ability to properly balance capacity supply and application demand. In practical terms, this means allocating the right amount of resources and putting workloads in the right places. These decisions are critical to ensuring performance, compliance and cost control.
Yet most organizations are using antiquated methods such as home-grown spreadsheets and best guesses to determine which infrastructure to host workloads on and how much capacity to allocate. Not only do these approaches hinder operational agility, but as hosting decisions become more and more complex, they are downright dangerous. The typical strategy employed to stave off risk is to over-provision infrastructure, and the thinking behind this is that having an excess of capacity on hand will ensure that enough resource is available to avoid any performance problems. This is not only expensive, but it actually doesn't prevent key operational issues and many of the performance and compliance issues that are caused by incorrectly combining workloads.
In essence, this management challenge is the same one faced by hotel operators. Hoteliers need to constantly align guest demands with hotel resources and amenities. A hotel could not operate without a reservation system to manage resource availability and match that with guest needs, and yet this is exactly how companies manage their virtual and internal cloud environments. Imagine if a hotel didn't have the operational control provided by their reservation system, and was constantly forced to build more rooms than necessary in order to meet "potential" guest demands, rather than basing their decision on an actual profile of historical and predicted demand. Or if they put clients in rooms without enough beds or required amenities. This should start sounding familiar to anyone who has managed a production virtual environment.
Hotels have had the luxury of a long history to refine their operations, and by using reservations systems to properly place guests and manage current and future bookings, they have gained a complete picture of available resources at any point in time. In doing so, they have optimized their ability to plan for and leverage available capacity, achieving the right balance between supply and demand.
Why Workload Routing and Reservations are Important
By applying the same principles used to manage a hotel's available capacity to their own operations, IT organizations can significantly reduce risk and cost while ensuring service levels in virtual and cloud infrastructures. There are five reasons why the process of workload routing and capacity reservation must become a core, automated component of IT planning and management:
1. Complexity of the Hosting Decision
Hosting decisions are all about optimally aligning supply with demand. However, this is very complex in modern infrastructures, where capabilities can vary widely, and the requirements of the workloads may have a significant impact on what can go where. To make the optimal decision, there are three important questions that must be asked:
- Do the infrastructure capabilities satisfy the workload requirements? This is commonly referred to as "fit for purpose," and is required to determine whether the hosting environment is suitable for the kind of workload being hosted. This question has not always been top of mind in the past, as the typical process to deploy new applications has been to procure new infrastructure with very detailed specifications. But the increasing use of shared environments is changing this, and understanding the specifications of the currently running hosting environments is critical. Unfortunately, early virtual environments tended to be one-size-fits-all, and early internal clouds tended to focus on dev/test workloads, so fit for purpose decisions rarely extended beyond ensuring the environment has the right CPU architecture.
- Will the workloads fit? While the fit for purpose analysis is concerned with whether a target environment has the right kind of capacity, this aspect of making hosting decisions is concerned with whether there is sufficient free capacity to host the workloads. This is a more traditional capacity problem, but with a twist, as virtual and cloud environments are by nature shared environments, and the capacity equation is multi-dimensional. Resources such as CPU, memory, disk, I/O, network I/O, storage capacity, etc., must be considered, as well as looking at the levels and patterns of activity to ensure that the new workloads are "dovetailing" with the existing ones. Furthermore, any analysis of capacity must also ensure that the workload will fit at the point in time it will be deployed and it must continue to fit beyond that time.
- What is the relative cost? While fit and suitability are critical to where to host a workload, in a tiebreaker the main issue becomes relative cost. While many organizations are still not sophisticated enough to have an accurate chargeback model in place, a more precise way to determine cost may be to consider the relative cost of hosting a workload as a function of policy and placement.
2. Capacity Supply and Application Demand are Dynamic
Nothing stands still in virtualized IT environments, and any decisions must be made in the context of ever-changing technologies, hardware specs, service catalogs, application requirements and workloads. This is becoming even more prevalent in the age of the software-defined data center.
Because of this, capacity must be viewed as a pipeline, with inbound demands, inbound supply side capacity, outbound demands and decommissioned capacity all being part of the natural flow of activity. Handling this flow is a key to achieving agility, which is a goal in the current breed of virtual and cloud hosting infrastructure. The ability to efficiently react to changing needs is critical, and the lack of agility in legacy environments is really a reflection of the fact that previous approaches did not operate as a pipeline. If it currently takes two to three months to get capacity, then it is a clear indication that there is no pipeline in place.
3. Meeting Your Customers Expectations
Application owners today have expectations that capacity will be available when required, so it's necessary for IT to have a way to hold capacity for planned workload placements to be available on the date of deployment (like advance booking a hotel room).
Sometimes the concept of a capacity reservation is equated with the draw-down on a pool of resources or a quota that has been assigned to a consumer or internal group. This is dangerous, as it simply ensures that a specific amount of resources will not be exceeded, and does not guarantee that actual resources will be available. This is analogous to getting a coupon from a store that says "limit 10 per customer" - it in no way guarantees that there will be any product left on the shelf. Organizations should beware of these types of reservations, as they can give a false sense of security.
Capacity reservations are extremely useful to those managing the infrastructure capacity. They provide an accurate model of the pipeline of demand, which allows for much more efficient, accurate and timely purchasing decisions. Simply put, less idle capacity needs to be left on the floor. It also allows infrastructure to be managed as a portfolio, and if a certain mix of resources is needed to satisfy the overall supply and demand balance (such as buying servers with more memory), then procurement can factor this in.
4. Even Self-Service Needs Reservations
Self-service can create a highly volatile demand pipeline. But a bigger issue with self-service models is the way organizations perceive them. Many early cloud implementations focus on dev/test users or more grid-type workloads, and the entire approach to delivering capacity takes on a last-minute, unplanned flavor. But these are not the only kinds of workloads - or even the most common - and for a cloud to become a true "next-generation" hosting platform it must also support enterprise applications and proper release planning processes.
The heart of the issue is a tendency for organizations to equate self-service with instant provisioning. Although instant provisioning is useful for dev/test, grid and other horizontal scaling scenarios, it is not the only approach. For example, an online hotel reservation site provides self-service access to hotel rooms, but these rooms are not often being booked for that night. For business trips, conferences and even vacations, you book ahead. The same process must be put into place for hosting workloads.
Rather than narrowly defining self-service as the immediate provisioning of capacity, it is better to focus on the intelligent provisioning of capacity, which may or may not be immediate. For enterprise workloads with proper planning cycles and typical lead times, reservations are far more important than instant provisioning. And deciding where the application should be hosted in the first place is a solution critical decision that is often overlooked. Unless an organization has only one hosting environment, the importance (and difficulty) of this should not be underestimated.
5. Demand Is Global
There is a huge benefit to thinking big when it comes to making hosting decisions. The long-term trend will undoubtedly be to start thinking beyond the four walls of an organization and make broader hosting decisions that include external cloud providers, outsourcing models and other potential avenues of efficiency. But the use of external capacity is still a distant roadmap item in many IT organizations, and the current focus tends to be on making the best use of existing capacity and purchasing dollars.
Operating in scale also allows certain assumptions to be challenged, such as the requirement for an application to be hosted at a specific geographical location. Geographical constraints should be fully understood and properly identified, and not simply assumed based on past activity or server-hugging paranoia. Some workloads do have specific jurisdictional constraints, compliance requirements or latency sensitivities, but many have a significant amount of leeway in this regard, and to constrain them unnecessarily ties up expensive data center resources.
Unfortunately, the manual processes and spreadsheet-based approaches in use in many organizations are simply not capable of operating at the necessary scale, and cannot properly model the true requirements and constraints of a workload. This not only means that decisions are made in an overly narrow context, but that the decisions that are made are likely wrong.
Moving Past Your "Gut"
Hosting decisions are far too important to be left to simplistic, best-efforts approaches. Where a workload is placed and how resources are assigned to it is likely the most important factor in operational efficiency and safety, and is even more critical as organizations consider cloud hosting models. These decisions must be driven by the true requirements of the applications, the capabilities of the infrastructure, the policies in force and the pipeline of activity. They should be made in the context of the global picture, where all supply and demand can be considered and all hosting assumptions challenged. And they should be made in software, not brains, so they are repeatable, accurate and can drive automation.
SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BMC delivers software solutions that help IT transform digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive business advantage. BMC has worked with thousands of leading companies to create and deliver powerful IT management services. From mainframe to cloud to mobile, BMC pairs high-speed digital innovation with robust IT industrialization – allowing customers to provide amazing user experiences with optimized IT per...
May. 27, 2015 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 985
SYS-CON Events announced today that MetraTech, now part of Ericsson, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Ericsson is the driving force behind the Networked Society- a world leader in communications infrastructure, software and services. Some 40% of the world’s mobile traffic runs through networks Ericsson has supplied, serving more than 2.5 billion subscribers.
May. 27, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,110
The world is at a tipping point where the technology, the device and global adoption are converging to such a point that we will see an explosion of a world where smartphone devices not only allow us to talk to each other, but allow for communication between everything – serving as a central hub from which we control our world – MediaTek is at the heart of both driving this and allowing the markets to drive this reality forward themselves. The next wave of consumer gadgets is here – smart, connected, and small. If your ambitions are big, so are ours. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jack Hu, D...
May. 27, 2015 12:49 PM EDT Reads: 686
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
May. 27, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,402
SYS-CON Events announced today that DragonGlass, an enterprise search platform, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. After eleven years of designing and building custom applications, OpenCrowd has launched DragonGlass, a cloud-based platform that enables the development of search-based applications. These are a new breed of applications that utilize a search index as their backbone for data retrieval. They can easily adapt to new data sets and provide access to both structured and unstruc...
May. 27, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,360
We’re entering a new era of computing technology that many are calling the Internet of Things (IoT). Machine to machine, machine to infrastructure, machine to environment, the Internet of Everything, the Internet of Intelligent Things, intelligent systems – call it what you want, but it’s happening, and its potential is huge. IoT is comprised of smart machines interacting and communicating with other machines, objects, environments and infrastructures. As a result, huge volumes of data are being generated, and that data is being processed into useful actions that can “command and control” thi...
May. 27, 2015 11:51 AM EDT Reads: 647
As the Internet of Things unfolds, mobile and wearable devices are blurring the line between physical and digital, integrating ever more closely with our interests, our routines, our daily lives. Contextual computing and smart, sensor-equipped spaces bring the potential to walk through a world that recognizes us and responds accordingly. We become continuous transmitters and receivers of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Bolwell, Director of Innovation for HP's Printing and Personal Systems Group, discussed how key attributes of mobile technology – touch input, sensors, social, and ...
May. 27, 2015 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,366
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo, June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be
May. 27, 2015 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,823
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will addresses this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
May. 27, 2015 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,378
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
May. 27, 2015 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 5,506
Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? In this Power Panel at DevOps Summit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise and president of Intellyx, panelists will peel away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you'll have no problem fil...
May. 27, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,283
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
May. 27, 2015 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 7,160
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
May. 27, 2015 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,668
In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect at GE, and Ibrahim Gokcen, who leads GE's advanced IoT analytics, focused on the Internet of Things / Industrial Internet and how to make it operational for business end-users. Learn about the challenges posed by machine and sensor data and how to marry it with enterprise data. They also discussed the tips and tricks to provide the Industrial Internet as an end-user consumable service using Big Data Analytics and Industrial Cloud.
May. 27, 2015 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 5,756
Building low-cost wearable devices can enhance the quality of our lives. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Sai Yamanoor, Embedded Software Engineer at Altschool, provided an example of putting together a small keychain within a $50 budget that educates the user about the air quality in their surroundings. He also provided examples such as building a wearable device that provides transit or recreational information. He then reviewed the resources available to build wearable devices at home including open source hardware, the raw materials required and the options available to power s...
May. 27, 2015 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,366
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happens, where data lives and where the interface lies. For instance, it's a mix of architectural styles ...
May. 27, 2015 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 6,034
We certainly live in interesting technological times. And no more interesting than the current competing IoT standards for connectivity. Various standards bodies, approaches, and ecosystems are vying for mindshare and positioning for a competitive edge. It is clear that when the dust settles, we will have new protocols, evolved protocols, that will change the way we interact with devices and infrastructure. We will also have evolved web protocols, like HTTP/2, that will be changing the very core of our infrastructures. At the same time, we have old approaches made new again like micro-services...
May. 27, 2015 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 5,701
Connected devices and the Internet of Things are getting significant momentum in 2014. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, examined three key elements that together will drive mass adoption of the IoT before the end of 2015. The first element is the recent advent of robust open source protocols (like AllJoyn and WebRTC) that facilitate M2M communication. The second is broad availability of flexible, cost-effective storage designed to handle the massive surge in back-end data in a world where timely analytics is e...
May. 27, 2015 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 6,455
Collecting data in the field and configuring multitudes of unique devices is a time-consuming, labor-intensive process that can stretch IT resources. Horan & Bird [H&B], Australia’s fifth-largest Solar Panel Installer, wanted to automate sensor data collection and monitoring from its solar panels and integrate the data with its business and marketing systems. After data was collected and structured, two major areas needed to be addressed: improving developer workflows and extending access to a business application to multiple users (multi-tenancy). Docker, a container technology, was used to ...
May. 27, 2015 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,662
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
May. 26, 2015 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,300