Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Jason Bloomberg, Liz McMillan, Stackify Blog, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Agile Computing, Cloud Security, @BigDataExpo

Microservices Expo: Article

Twitter’s Story: How Homegrown Load Testing Tools Can Misfire

If Twitter built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash?

The selfie that changed the world, or at least Twitter, has been in the news for the past month. On March 2, 2014, the infamous Oscar selfie of Ellen and her celebrity friends broke a record of 2 million retweets before midnight the same night. That record was previously set by President Barack Obama, hugging first lady Michelle Obama after his 2012 re-election.

The selfie caused Twitter to crash for more than 20 minutes, also breaking the record for the longest crash of the social media site. Twitter was infamous for crashing in its early days (anyone remember "Fail Whale?"), so it's no wonder the social media giant worked extra hard to completely prepare their website infrastructure before going public in November 2013. This included building their own load testing tool, Iago, in 2012.

If they built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash? The Oscar selfie crash is a perfect example of what companies can easily overlook. Twitter did not test their users properly and their homegrown tool clearly doesn't solve all of their problems... their servers still crash.

What is Iago and why did Twitter decide to make it? And what does that have to do with your decision to use homegrown tools versus vendor load testing tools? Don't worry, we will tell you.

Twitter's Homegrown Load Testing Tool: Iago
Iago was created in June of 2012 by Twitter's internal engineering team. According to Twitter, Iago is a load generator created to help the social media site test services before they encounter production traffic. Chris Aniszczyk, Head of Open Source at Twitter, said, "There are many load generators available in the open source and commercial software worlds, but Iago provided us with capabilities that are uniquely suited for Twitter's environment and the precise degree to which we need to test our services."

Basically their homegrown tool was completely customized for their platform alone - a very attractive aspect of developing your own tool.

The three attributes Twitter focused on in creating Iago were:

  1. High performance: Iago was designed to generate traffic in a precise and predictable way, to minimize variance between test runs and allow comparisons to be made between development iterations.
  2. Multi-protocol: Modeling a system as complex as Twitter can be difficult, but it's made easier by decomposing it into component services. Once decomposed, each piece can be tested in isolation; which requires the load generator to speak each service's protocol. Twitter has in excess of 100 such services, and Iago tests most of them using built-in support for the internal protocols Twitter uses.
  3. Extensible: Iago is designed for engineers. It assumes the person building the system will also be interested in validating performance. As such, the tool is designed from the ground up to be extensible - making it easy to generate new traffic types, over new protocols and with individualized traffic sources.

Why Twitter Couldn't Handle Ellen's Selfie
If we were to do the math, Iago was up and running for nearly two years before the Oscar selfie. What happened to their load testing tool?

There were two main reasons why Twitter crashed. First, the tweet Ellen posted was a picture. On Twitter, a tweet accounts for only 260 bytes of data while a picture on Twitter accounts for 33KB of data, almost 130 times as much as a tweet. Second, Twitter's distributed server system was already at max capacity so the load taken on by the website couldn't be distributed to any nearby servers.

Twitter made one major mistake contributing to the crash back in March: they didn't anticipate and replicate real user activity. Most likely Iago wasn't instructed to generate a load based on a picture being retweeted millions of times, thus Twitter didn't know what to expect when the Oscars rolled around.

Homegrown Tool vs. Vendor Load Testing Solutions
Twitter was looking for a DIY homegrown solution because of their unique platform, and while most load testing tools seek to accomplish the same goal, there are always differences between tools. Here are some of the differences we see between homegrown and vendor-provided load testing tools.

Homegrown

Vendor

1. You can customize it - A homegrown tool, created completely from scratch, means you can build exactly what you think you need. But you don't get the benefit of lots of other people's experiences - so what you think you need may not turn out to be what you actually need.

2. Homegrown tools are free like a puppy is free - We have mentioned this analogy before in another post, and it needs to be brought up again. Homegrown tools aren't really free. You have to pay a team to keep them up and running.

3. What if someone leaves? - A couple of developers are experts on the tool they built, but what happens when they leave? Who is going to be your expert? If the new person isn't properly trained and if the code isn't well documented, then modifications to the code become extremely difficult.

1. Your vendor makes it extensible - A vendor that supports lots of users is constantly adding features and capabilities to support needs you may not have realized you have yet. With extensible APIs and SDKs, you still have the ability to add integrations and the protocol support your application demands.

2. You pay for something that works - With homegrown tools there is no guarantee that it will work 100% of the time. By paying a vendor to use their tool, you have assurances that your load testing tool won't let you down when you need it most.

3. Support Team - Vendors dedicate people to work on any issues and keep you worry-free. Their team of experts is available to make sure all of your questions and concerns are addressed.

Homegrown Tools Are Not for Everyone
Twitter's tool has done well to help them improve the performance of the service, but continued service disruptions show that it isn't perfect. A homegrown tool isn't always the best solution, and most of the time, companies do not have the resources handy to completely build their load testing tool from scratch. If you are interested in learning more about vendor options, give us a call. We're more than happy to help.

More Stories By Tim Hinds

Tim Hinds is the Product Marketing Manager for NeoLoad at Neotys. He has a background in Agile software development, Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and Continuous Testing practices.

Previously, Tim was Product Marketing Manager at AccuRev, a company acquired by Micro Focus, where he worked with software configuration management, issue tracking, Agile project management, continuous integration, workflow automation, and distributed version control systems.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
The question before companies today is not whether to become intelligent, it’s a question of how and how fast. The key is to adopt and deploy an intelligent application strategy while simultaneously preparing to scale that intelligence. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Chief Customer Officer at Ayasdi, will provide a tactical framework to become a truly intelligent enterprise, including how to identify the right applications for AI, how to build a Center of Excellence to ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Massive Networks mission is simple. To help your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions. Improve your customer's experience with outstanding connections to your cloud.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
Because IoT devices are deployed in mission-critical environments more than ever before, it’s increasingly imperative they be truly smart. IoT sensors simply stockpiling data isn’t useful. IoT must be artificially and naturally intelligent in order to provide more value In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Crupi, Vice President and Engineering System Architect at Greenwave Systems, will discuss how IoT artificial intelligence (AI) can be carried out via edge analytics and machine learning techn...
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution and join Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader, Sergey Grebnov, in his session at @ThingsExpo, for an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arvind Radhakrishnen discussed how IoT offers new business models in banking and financial services organizations with the capability to revolutionize products, payments, channels, business processes and asset management built on strong architectural foundation. The following topics were covered: How IoT stands to impact various business parameters including customer experience, cost and risk management within BFS organizations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business - from apparel to energy - is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
From 2013, NTT Communications has been providing cPaaS service, SkyWay. Its customer’s expectations for leveraging WebRTC technology are not only typical real-time communication use cases such as Web conference, remote education, but also IoT use cases such as remote camera monitoring, smart-glass, and robotic. Because of this, NTT Communications has numerous IoT business use-cases that its customers are developing on top of PaaS. WebRTC will lead IoT businesses to be more innovative and address...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
WebRTC is great technology to build your own communication tools. It will be even more exciting experience it with advanced devices, such as a 360 Camera, 360 microphone, and a depth sensor camera. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Masashi Ganeko, a manager at INFOCOM Corporation, will introduce two experimental projects from his team and what they learned from them. "Shotoku Tamago" uses the robot audition software HARK to track speakers in 360 video of a remote party. "Virtual Teleport" uses a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Calligo has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Calligo is an innovative cloud service provider offering mid-sized companies the highest levels of data privacy. Calligo offers unparalleled application performance guarantees, commercial flexibility and a personalized support service from its globally located cloud platform...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Elastifile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Elastifile Cloud File System (ECFS) is software-defined data infrastructure designed for seamless and efficient management of dynamic workloads across heterogeneous environments. Elastifile provides the architecture needed to optimize your hybrid cloud environment, by facilitating efficient...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Launched in 2016, Cloudistics helps anyone bring the power of the cloud to the data center in an easy-to-use, on- premises cloud platform that automatically provides high performance resources for all types of applications: Docke...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Secure Channels, a cybersecurity firm, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Secure Channels, Inc. offers several products and solutions to its many clients, helping them protect critical data from being compromised and access to computer networks from the unauthorized. The company develops comprehensive data encryption security strategie...
Recently, WebRTC has a lot of eyes from market. The use cases of WebRTC are expanding - video chat, online education, online health care etc. Not only for human-to-human communication, but also IoT use cases such as machine to human use cases can be seen recently. One of the typical use-case is remote camera monitoring. With WebRTC, people can have interoperability and flexibility for deploying monitoring service. However, the benefit of WebRTC for IoT is not only its convenience and interopera...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SkyScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SkyScale is a world-class provider of cloud-based, ultra-fast multi-GPU hardware platforms for lease to customers desiring the fastest performance available as a service anywhere in the world. SkyScale builds, configures, and manages dedicated systems strategically located in maximum-security...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera offers a radically new approach to data management, where innovative software makes data infrastructure invisible, elastic and able to perform at the highest level. It eliminates hardware lock-in and gives IT organizations the choice to source x86 server nodes, with business model option...