|By Ali Hussain||
|April 18, 2014 12:00 PM EDT||
Setting up a deployment process on the cloud means a variety of choices. Most likely you're prepared to make some tradeoffs. But getting a view across these potential tradeoffs can be difficult. Here are six popular deployments and advice for making the best choice for your organization's needs.
Let's assume you want a deployment for a small startup with fewer than 20 developers, each needing to host a web app that's gaining traction and for which rapid growth is expected. Its requirements are as follows:
- Autoscaling support to handle expected surges in demand
- Maximizing developer efficiency by automating tedious tasks and improving dev flow
- Encouraging mature processes for building a stable foundation as the codebase grows
- Maintaining flexibility and agility to handle hotfixes of a relatively immature codebase
- Counting on a few sources to fail, because any of them can cause deployment failure - imagine GitHub failing or a required plugin becoming unavailable
Narrowing the focus a bit more, let's assume the codebase is using Ruby on Rails, as is often the case. We'll examine various deployment choices in detail, walk through a thorough analysis and then provide recommendations for anyone that fits our sample client profile.
1. The Plain Vanilla AMI Method
Amazon OpsWorks: This proven deployment is a well-tested Amazon OpsWorks Standard recommendation. Each time a new node comes up fresh, it requires running all Chef recipes. To automate this process, Cloud-init is used to run scripts for handling code and environment updates that occur when running nodes.
Pros: This approach requires no AMI management. The process is straightforward, self-documenting and brings up a clean environment every time. Updates and patches are applied very quickly.
Cons: Bringing up new instances is extremely slow, there are many moving parts, and there's a high risk of failure.
Bottom Line: While this is a clean solution, the frequent-failure rate and amount of time needed for bringup makes the Plain Vanilla AMI impractical for a use case with autoscaling.
2. The Bake-Everything AMI Method
This deployment option is proven to work at Amazon Video and Netflix. It runs all Chef recipes once, fetches the codebase and then bakes and uses the AMI. Each change requires a new AMI and an ASG replacement within the ELB, including code and environment changes.
Keep in mind that the environment and configuration management parts of the deployment still need automation using tools like Chef and Puppet. Lack of automation can otherwise make AMI management a nightmare, as one tends to lose track of how the environment actually looks within the AMI.
Pros: Provides the fastest bringup, requires no installation, and includes the fewest moving parts, so error rates are very low.
Cons: Each code deployment requires baking a new AMI. This requires a lot of effort to ensure that the process is as fast as possible in order to avoid developer bottlenecks. This setup also makes it harder to deploy hotfixes.
Bottom Line: This is generally a best practice, but requires a certain level of codebase maturity and a high level of infrastructure sophistication. For example, Netflix has spent a lot of time speeding up the process of baking AMIs by using their Aminator project.
3. A Hybrid Method Using Chef to Handle Complete Deployment
This method strikes a balance between the Plain Vanilla AMI and the Bake-Everything AMI. An AMI is baked using Chef for configuration and environment, but one can't check the codebase or deploy the app. Chef does those once the node is brought up.
Pros: Since all packages are pre-installed, this method is significantly faster than using a Plain Vanilla AMI. Also, since the code is pulled once a node is commissioned, the ability to provide hotfixes is improved.
Cons: Because we're relying on Chef in production, there's a dependency on the repository, and pulling from the repository may fail.
Bottom Line: We consider this to be a medium-risk implementation due to its reliance on Chef.
4. A Hybrid Method Using Capistrano to Handle Code Deployment
This is similar to the hybrid Chef deployment approach, but with code deployed through Capistrano. Capistrano is a mature platform for deploying Rails code that includes several features and fail-safe mechanisms that make it better than Chef. In particular, if pull from the repository fails, Capistrano deploys an older revision from its backups.
Pros: The same as for the Chef hybrid, except that Capistrano is more mature than Chef, especially in handling repository failures.
Cons: It requires two tools instead of one, which increases management overhead even though they're tied together. In addition, the gap between environment and code is wider, and managing the tools separately is difficult.
Bottom Line: Capistrano is a better Rails solution for code deployment than Chef, and the ability to apply fixes quickly may make it the best solution.
5. The AMI-Bake and CRON-Based Chef-Client Method
This deployment method resembles that of the hybrids. However, it provisions features allow auto-propagation of changes because each AMI runs chef-client every N minutes. New AMIs are baked only for major changes. It can provide continuous deployment, but continuous deployment is an aggressive tactic that requires excellent continuous integration on the back end.
Pros: Allows continuous code deployment.
Cons: It's prone to errors if Continuous Integration is not stable. In addition, Chef re-bootstraps aren't reliable and may fail.
Bottom Line: Not recommended unless CI is solid.
6. The Cloud-Init and Docker Method
All indications are that Docker is the best choice for this use case. It comes closer to a bake-everything solution while getting around bake-everything's biggest drawbacks. It allows AMIs to be baked once and rarely changes after that. Both the environment and the app code are contained inside an LXC container, with each AMI consisting of one container. Upon code deployment, a new container is simply pushed, which provides deployment-process flexibility.
Pros: Docker containers provide a history with which one can compare containers, helps with issues of undocumented steps in image creation. Code and environment are tied together. The repository structure of containers leads to faster deployment than does which baking a new AMI. Docker also helps to create a local environment similar to the production environment.
Cons: Docker is still in early phases of development and suffers from some growing pains, including a few bugs, a limited tools ecosystem, some app compatibility issues and a limited feature set.
Bottom Line: If you adopt this approach, you'll be doing considerable trailblazing. There's little information available, so comparing notes with other pioneers will be helpful.
While there are many options for deploying Ruby on Rails in AWS environments, there isn't a single best solution. Taking the time to review the options and tradeoffs can save headaches along the way. Talk to peers and experienced consultants about their experiences before making the final decisions.
What are your comments in regard to using these deployments?
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, Chief Architect at CTS, will explore the synergy of Big Data and IoT. First he will take a closer look at the Internet of Things and Big Data individually, in terms of what, which, why, where, when, who, how and how much. Then he will explore the relationship between IoT and Big Data. Specifically, he will drill down to how the 4Vs aspects intersect with IoT: Volume, Variety, Velocity and Value. In turn, Tony will analyze how the key components of IoT influence Big Data: Device, Connectivity, Context, and Intelligence. He will dive deep to the matrix...
Oct. 6, 2015 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 295
When it comes to IoT in the enterprise, namely the commercial building and hospitality markets, a benefit not getting the attention it deserves is energy efficiency, and IoT’s direct impact on a cleaner, greener environment when installed in smart buildings. Until now clean technology was offered piecemeal and led with point solutions that require significant systems integration to orchestrate and deploy. There didn't exist a 'top down' approach that can manage and monitor the way a Smart Building actually breathes - immediately flagging overheating in a closet or over cooling in unoccupied ho...
Oct. 6, 2015 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 241
Scott Guthrie's keynote presentation "Journey to the intelligent cloud" is a must view video. This is from AzureCon 2015, September 29, 2015 I have reproduced some screen shots in case you are unable to view this long video for one reason or another. One of the highlights is 3 datacenters coming on line in India.
Oct. 6, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 222
“The Internet of Things transforms the way organizations leverage machine data and gain insights from it,” noted Splunk’s CTO Snehal Antani, as Splunk announced accelerated momentum in Industrial Data and the IoT. The trend is driven by Splunk’s continued investment in its products and partner ecosystem as well as the creativity of customers and the flexibility to deploy Splunk IoT solutions as software, cloud services or in a hybrid environment. Customers are using Splunk® solutions to collect and correlate data from control systems, sensors, mobile devices and IT systems for a variety of Ind...
Oct. 6, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 580
SYS-CON Events announced today that ProfitBricks, the provider of painless cloud infrastructure, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ProfitBricks is the IaaS provider that offers a painless cloud experience for all IT users, with no learning curve. ProfitBricks boasts flexible cloud servers and networking, an integrated Data Center Designer tool for visual control over the cloud and the best price/performance value available. ProfitBricks was named one of the coolest Clo...
Oct. 6, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 734
You have your devices and your data, but what about the rest of your Internet of Things story? Two popular classes of technologies that nicely handle the Big Data analytics for Internet of Things are Apache Hadoop and NoSQL. Hadoop is designed for parallelizing analytical work across many servers and is ideal for the massive data volumes you create with IoT devices. NoSQL databases such as Apache HBase are ideal for storing and retrieving IoT data as “time series data.”
Oct. 6, 2015 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 456
Clearly the way forward is to move to cloud be it bare metal, VMs or containers. One aspect of the current public clouds that is slowing this cloud migration is cloud lock-in. Every cloud vendor is trying to make it very difficult to move out once a customer has chosen their cloud. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Naveen Nimmu, CEO of Clouber, Inc., will advocate that making the inter-cloud migration as simple as changing airlines would help the entire industry to quickly adopt the cloud without worrying about any lock-in fears. In fact by having standard APIs for IaaS would help PaaS expl...
Oct. 6, 2015 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 573
Organizations already struggle with the simple collection of data resulting from the proliferation of IoT, lacking the right infrastructure to manage it. They can't only rely on the cloud to collect and utilize this data because many applications still require dedicated infrastructure for security, redundancy, performance, etc. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Emil Sayegh, CEO of Codero Hosting, will discuss how in order to resolve the inherent issues, companies need to combine dedicated and cloud solutions through hybrid hosting – a sustainable solution for the data required to manage I...
Oct. 6, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 435
Apps and devices shouldn't stop working when there's limited or no network connectivity. Learn how to bring data stored in a cloud database to the edge of the network (and back again) whenever an Internet connection is available. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate at IBM Cloud Data Services, will demonstrate techniques for replicating cloud databases with devices in order to build offline-first mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) apps that can provide a better, faster user experience, both offline and online. The focus of this talk will be on IBM Cloudant, Apa...
Oct. 6, 2015 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 446
Mobile messaging has been a popular communication channel for more than 20 years. Finnish engineer Matti Makkonen invented the idea for SMS (Short Message Service) in 1984, making his vision a reality on December 3, 1992 by sending the first message ("Happy Christmas") from a PC to a cell phone. Since then, the technology has evolved immensely, from both a technology standpoint, and in our everyday uses for it. Originally used for person-to-person (P2P) communication, i.e., Sally sends a text message to Betty – mobile messaging now offers tremendous value to businesses for customer and empl...
Oct. 6, 2015 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 163
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of streaming data in the cloud with an enterprise grade SLA. It features built-in integration with Azur...
Oct. 6, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 732
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Oct. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 566
The enterprise is being consumerized, and the consumer is being enterprised. Moore's Law does not matter anymore, the future belongs to business virtualization powered by invisible service architecture, powered by hyperscale and hyperconvergence, and facilitated by vertical streaming and horizontal scaling and consolidation. Both buyers and sellers want instant results, and from paperwork to paperless to mindless is the ultimate goal for any seamless transaction. The sweetest sweet spot in innovation is automation. The most painful pain point for any business is the mismatch between supplies a...
Oct. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 135
The broad selection of hardware, the rapid evolution of operating systems and the time-to-market for mobile apps has been so rapid that new challenges for developers and engineers arise every day. Security, testing, hosting, and other metrics have to be considered through the process. In his session at Big Data Expo, Walter Maguire, Chief Field Technologist, HP Big Data Group, at Hewlett-Packard, will discuss the challenges faced by developers and a composite Big Data applications builder, focusing on how to help solve the problems that developers are continuously battling.
Oct. 6, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 409
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM Cloud Data Services has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IBM Cloud Data Services offers a portfolio of integrated, best-of-breed cloud data services for developers focused on mobile computing and analytics use cases.
Oct. 5, 2015 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 614
As enterprises capture more and more data of all types – structured, semi-structured, and unstructured – data discovery requirements for business intelligence (BI), Big Data, and predictive analytics initiatives grow more complex. A company’s ability to become data-driven and compete on analytics depends on the speed with which it can provision their analytics applications with all relevant information. The task of finding data has traditionally resided with IT, but now organizations increasingly turn towards data source discovery tools to find the right data, in context, for business users, d...
Oct. 5, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 378
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a software development company, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software development company with representative offices in Atlanta (US), Sheffield (UK) and Würzburg (Germany); and development centers in Ukraine. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobile software company with over 150 developers, designers, quality assurance engineers, project manage...
Oct. 5, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 732
Learn how IoT, cloud, social networks and last but not least, humans, can be integrated into a seamless integration of cooperative organisms both cybernetic and biological. This has been enabled by recent advances in IoT device capabilities, messaging frameworks, presence and collaboration services, where devices can share information and make independent and human assisted decisions based upon social status from other entities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Heydt, founder of Seamless Thingies, will discuss and demonstrate how devices and humans can be integrated from a simple clust...
Oct. 4, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 626
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Raxak has been named “Media & Session Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Raxak Protect automates security compliance across private and public clouds. Using the SaaS tool or managed service, developers can deploy cloud apps quickly, cost-effectively, and without error.
Oct. 3, 2015 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 624
Who are you? How do you introduce yourself? Do you use a name, or do you greet a friend by the last four digits of his social security number? Assuming you don’t, why are we content to associate our identity with 10 random digits assigned by our phone company? Identity is an issue that affects everyone, but as individuals we don’t spend a lot of time thinking about it. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ben Klang, Founder & President of Mojo Lingo, will discuss the impact of technology on identity. Should we federate, or not? How should identity be secured? Who owns the identity? How is identity ...
Oct. 3, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 418