Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, Stackify Blog, Pat Romanski, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, Ruby-On-Rails

@CloudExpo: Article

Top Six Ruby on Rails Deployment Methods in AWS: Pros & Cons

I’ll examine various deployment choices in detail, walk through a thorough analysis and then provide recommendations

Setting up a deployment process on the cloud means a variety of choices. Most likely you're prepared to make some tradeoffs. But getting a view across these potential tradeoffs can be difficult. Here are six popular deployments and advice for making the best choice for your organization's needs.

Let's assume you want a deployment for a small startup with fewer than 20 developers, each needing to host a web app that's gaining traction and for which rapid growth is expected. Its requirements are as follows:

  • Autoscaling support to handle expected surges in demand
  • Maximizing developer efficiency by automating tedious tasks and improving dev flow
  • Encouraging mature processes for building a stable foundation as the codebase grows
  • Maintaining flexibility and agility to handle hotfixes of a relatively immature codebase
  • Counting on a few sources to fail, because any of them can cause deployment failure - imagine GitHub failing or a required plugin becoming unavailable

Narrowing the focus a bit more, let's assume the codebase is using Ruby on Rails, as is often the case. We'll examine various deployment choices in detail, walk through a thorough analysis and then provide recommendations for anyone that fits our sample client profile.

1. The Plain Vanilla AMI Method
Amazon OpsWorks: This proven deployment is a well-tested Amazon OpsWorks Standard recommendation. Each time a new node comes up fresh, it requires running all Chef recipes. To automate this process, Cloud-init is used to run scripts for handling code and environment updates that occur when running nodes.

Pros: This approach requires no AMI management. The process is straightforward, self-documenting and brings up a clean environment every time. Updates and patches are applied very quickly.

Cons: Bringing up new instances is extremely slow, there are many moving parts, and there's a high risk of failure.

Bottom Line: While this is a clean solution, the frequent-failure rate and amount of time needed for bringup makes the Plain Vanilla AMI impractical for a use case with autoscaling.

2. The Bake-Everything AMI Method
This deployment option is proven to work at Amazon Video and Netflix. It runs all Chef recipes once, fetches the codebase and then bakes and uses the AMI. Each change requires a new AMI and an ASG replacement within the ELB, including code and environment changes.

Keep in mind that the environment and configuration management parts of the deployment still need automation using tools like Chef and Puppet. Lack of automation can otherwise make AMI management a nightmare, as one tends to lose track of how the environment actually looks within the AMI.

Pros: Provides the fastest bringup, requires no installation, and includes the fewest moving parts, so error rates are very low.

Cons: Each code deployment requires baking a new AMI. This requires a lot of effort to ensure that the process is as fast as possible in order to avoid developer bottlenecks. This setup also makes it harder to deploy hotfixes.

Bottom Line: This is generally a best practice, but requires a certain level of codebase maturity and a high level of infrastructure sophistication. For example, Netflix has spent a lot of time speeding up the process of baking AMIs by using their Aminator project.

3. A Hybrid Method Using Chef to Handle Complete Deployment
This method strikes a balance between the Plain Vanilla AMI and the Bake-Everything AMI. An AMI is baked using Chef for configuration and environment, but one can't check the codebase or deploy the app. Chef does those once the node is brought up.

Pros: Since all packages are pre-installed, this method is significantly faster than using a Plain Vanilla AMI. Also, since the code is pulled once a node is commissioned, the ability to provide hotfixes is improved.

Cons: Because we're relying on Chef in production, there's a dependency on the repository, and pulling from the repository may fail.

Bottom Line: We consider this to be a medium-risk implementation due to its reliance on Chef.

4. A Hybrid Method Using Capistrano to Handle Code Deployment
This is similar to the hybrid Chef deployment approach, but with code deployed through Capistrano. Capistrano is a mature platform for deploying Rails code that includes several features and fail-safe mechanisms that make it better than Chef. In particular, if pull from the repository fails, Capistrano deploys an older revision from its backups.

Pros: The same as for the Chef hybrid, except that Capistrano is more mature than Chef, especially in handling repository failures.

Cons: It requires two tools instead of one, which increases management overhead even though they're tied together. In addition, the gap between environment and code is wider, and managing the tools separately is difficult.

Bottom Line: Capistrano is a better Rails solution for code deployment than Chef, and the ability to apply fixes quickly may make it the best solution.

5. The AMI-Bake and CRON-Based Chef-Client Method
This deployment method resembles that of the hybrids. However, it provisions features allow auto-propagation of changes because each AMI runs chef-client every N minutes. New AMIs are baked only for major changes. It can provide continuous deployment, but continuous deployment is an aggressive tactic that requires excellent continuous integration on the back end.

Pros: Allows continuous code deployment.

Cons: It's prone to errors if Continuous Integration is not stable. In addition, Chef re-bootstraps aren't reliable and may fail.

Bottom Line: Not recommended unless CI is solid.

6. The Cloud-Init and Docker Method
All indications are that Docker is the best choice for this use case. It comes closer to a bake-everything solution while getting around bake-everything's biggest drawbacks. It allows AMIs to be baked once and rarely changes after that. Both the environment and the app code are contained inside an LXC container, with each AMI consisting of one container. Upon code deployment, a new container is simply pushed, which provides deployment-process flexibility.

Pros: Docker containers provide a history with which one can compare containers, helps with issues of undocumented steps in image creation. Code and environment are tied together. The repository structure of containers leads to faster deployment than does which baking a new AMI. Docker also helps to create a local environment similar to the production environment.

Cons: Docker is still in early phases of development and suffers from some growing pains, including a few bugs, a limited tools ecosystem, some app compatibility issues and a limited feature set.

Bottom Line: If you adopt this approach, you'll be doing considerable trailblazing. There's little information available, so comparing notes with other pioneers will be helpful.

Conclusion
While there are many options for deploying Ruby on Rails in AWS environments, there isn't a single best solution. Taking the time to review the options and tradeoffs can save headaches along the way. Talk to peers and experienced consultants about their experiences before making the final decisions.

What are your comments in regard to using these deployments?

More Stories By Ali Hussain

Ali Hussain is CTO & Co-Founder of Flux7 Labs. He has been designing scalable and distributed systems for the last decade and is an AWS Certified Solutions Architect, Associate Level, earning this recognition with a score of 95%.

He began his career at Intel as part of the performance modeling team for Intel’s Atom microprocessor where he focused on benchmarking, power usage and workload optimization. Ali spent four years focused on performance modeling at ARM, Inc. At ARM he optimized the latency and throughput characteristics of systems, modeled performance, and brought a data-driven methodology to performance analyses. Ali acquired his passion for distributed systems while earning his MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His Bachelor of Science (High Honors) in Computer Engineering was obtained from the University of Texas at Austin.

His current interests in Flux7 are in Enterprise Migration and configuration management

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
WebRTC is great technology to build your own communication tools. It will be even more exciting experience it with advanced devices, such as a 360 Camera, 360 microphone, and a depth sensor camera. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Masashi Ganeko, a manager at INFOCOM Corporation, will introduce two experimental projects from his team and what they learned from them. "Shotoku Tamago" uses the robot audition software HARK to track speakers in 360 video of a remote party. "Virtual Teleport" uses a...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CAST Software will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CAST was founded more than 25 years ago to make the invisible visible. Built around the idea that even the best analytics on the market still leave blind spots for technical teams looking to deliver better software and prevent outages, CAST provides the software intelligence that matter ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pulzze Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Pulzze Systems Inc, provides the software product "The Interactor" that uniquely simplifies building IoT, Web and Smart Enterprise Solutions. It is a Silicon Valley startup funded by US government agencies, NSF and DHS to bring innovative solutions to market.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dr. Robert Cohen, an economist and senior fellow at the Economic Strategy Institute, presented the findings of a series of six detailed case studies of how large corporations are implementing IoT. The session explored how IoT has improved their economic performance, had major impacts on business models and resulted in impressive ROIs. The companies covered span manufacturing and services firms. He also explored servicification, how manufacturing firms shift from se...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Elastifile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Elastifile Cloud File System (ECFS) is software-defined data infrastructure designed for seamless and efficient management of dynamic workloads across heterogeneous environments. Elastifile provides the architecture needed to optimize your hybrid cloud environment, by facilitating efficient...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
Recently, WebRTC has a lot of eyes from market. The use cases of WebRTC are expanding - video chat, online education, online health care etc. Not only for human-to-human communication, but also IoT use cases such as machine to human use cases can be seen recently. One of the typical use-case is remote camera monitoring. With WebRTC, people can have interoperability and flexibility for deploying monitoring service. However, the benefit of WebRTC for IoT is not only its convenience and interopera...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Secure Channels, a cybersecurity firm, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Secure Channels, Inc. offers several products and solutions to its many clients, helping them protect critical data from being compromised and access to computer networks from the unauthorized. The company develops comprehensive data encryption security strategie...
An increasing number of companies are creating products that combine data with analytical capabilities. Running interactive queries on Big Data requires complex architectures to store and query data effectively, typically involving data streams, an choosing efficient file format/database and multiple independent systems that are tied together through custom-engineered pipelines. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Tomer Levi, a senior software engineer at Intel’s Advanced Analytics ...
Internet-of-Things discussions can end up either going down the consumer gadget rabbit hole or focused on the sort of data logging that industrial manufacturers have been doing forever. However, in fact, companies today are already using IoT data both to optimize their operational technology and to improve the experience of customer interactions in novel ways. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Gordon Haff, Red Hat Technology Evangelist, shared examples from a wide range of industries – including en...
Detecting internal user threats in the Big Data eco-system is challenging and cumbersome. Many organizations monitor internal usage of the Big Data eco-system using a set of alerts. This is not a scalable process given the increase in the number of alerts with the accelerating growth in data volume and user base. Organizations are increasingly leveraging machine learning to monitor only those data elements that are sensitive and critical, autonomously establish monitoring policies, and to detect...
"We're a cybersecurity firm that specializes in engineering security solutions both at the software and hardware level. Security cannot be an after-the-fact afterthought, which is what it's become," stated Richard Blech, Chief Executive Officer at Secure Channels, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
To get the most out of their data, successful companies are not focusing on queries and data lakes, they are actively integrating analytics into their operations with a data-first application development approach. Real-time adjustments to improve revenues, reduce costs, or mitigate risk rely on applications that minimize latency on a variety of data sources. Jack Norris reviews best practices to show how companies develop, deploy, and dynamically update these applications and how this data-first...
Intelligent Automation is now one of the key business imperatives for CIOs and CISOs impacting all areas of business today. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Brian Boeggeman, VP Alliances & Partnerships at Ayehu, will talk about how business value is created and delivered through intelligent automation to today’s enterprises. The open ecosystem platform approach toward Intelligent Automation that Ayehu delivers to the market is core to enabling the creation of the self-driving enterprise.
The question before companies today is not whether to become intelligent, it’s a question of how and how fast. The key is to adopt and deploy an intelligent application strategy while simultaneously preparing to scale that intelligence. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Chief Customer Officer at Ayasdi, will provide a tactical framework to become a truly intelligent enterprise, including how to identify the right applications for AI, how to build a Center of Excellence to ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Massive Networks mission is simple. To help your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions. Improve your customer's experience with outstanding connections to your cloud.