Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Sematext Blog, Xenia von Wedel

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Containers Expo Blog, Cloud Security, @BigDataExpo

@CloudExpo: Article

Encryption in Use Deep Dive

What you need to know to secure and control your data

Encryption in Use – Fact and Fiction
Risk-conscious enterprises across the globe have been reluctant to embrace the public cloud model. For many, compliance requirements are the source of the reluctance. For others, concerns about ceding control of their data to a cloud service provider, without the cloud service provider accepting liability for customer data, is the major hurdle. Conforming to data residency regulations, when implementing a distributed services model, present a further complication. Even as these challenges to adoption loom large, the economics and productivity benefits of cloud-based services remain compelling. For these organizations to make the transition to the cloud, a range of elements must be in place, including continuous monitoring of the cloud service provider’s data center, enforcement of appropriate service level agreements, data classification and definition of internal processes to manage cloud-based services.  Encryption in use is a critical piece of this puzzle, since it provides a mechanism for the enterprise to extend their boundary of control to their data stored and processed within the cloud service provider's environment. However, not all encryption in use is created equally, secure, and a generic. A one size fits all approach is likely to fall short in providing a balance between security and functionality.

The Case for Encryption in Use
For almost as long as the field of information security has been in existence, encryption of data at rest and encryption of data in transit have served as cornerstone technologies to prevent access to sensitive, proprietary, confidential or regulated data. Both forms of encryption operate through exchange and presentation of a combination of public and private keys that unlock the encrypted data. The great step forward for modern cryptography was the idea that the key that you use to encrypt your data could be made public while the key that is used to decrypt your data could be kept private. The purpose of both is to ensure that only users or systems with access to the key could access the data.

Encryption in use provides functionality that is almost counter-intuitive to the purpose behind modern encryption for data at rest and data in transit, working to ensure that the data remains in an encrypted state, even as users interact with the data, performing operations like search or sort, for example. However, just like encryption for other states of data, encryption in use serves a clear need. Without encryption in use, organizations cannot retain ownership and control of their data stored and processed in a cloud-based service – whether control is required to address security, compliance, data residency, privacy or governance needs. Encryption in use is similar to format preserving encryption in that it is applied in real time, but allows for a far broader range of cloud service functionality and feature support.

Encryption in use enables enterprises to independently secure their data stored and processed at cloud service providers – while holding on to the encryption keys. The ongoing revelations of government surveillance that are supported by laws compelling cloud service providers to hand over customer data, highlight the challenge that end users face of meeting their obligations to retain direct control of their cloud data.  The recent set of recommendations from the Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies appointed by the White House focused on implementing better privacy steps is only the first step in revisiting policies.

Because encryption in use is an emerging area, the technology can be easily misunderstood, or even easily misrepresented. Typically, encryption in use entails the use of a gateway, or proxy, architecture. The user accesses the application via the gateway – whether the application server is in the cloud or on premise.  The key to decrypt the data resides in the gateway (or in an integrated HSM), ensuring that data stored and processed at the server is persistently encrypted, even as the encryption is entirely transparent to the user. Were the user to access the server directly, bypassing the gateway, the data would simply appear as a string of encrypted gibberish.  As long as the gateway remains under the data owner’s control, only authorized users can gain access to the data stored and processed at the cloud service provider, or other third party.

In the event that the cloud service provider is required to hand over customer data in response to a government subpoena, they must their meet their legal obligation. However, if encryption in use has been implemented, the service provider can only hand over encrypted gibberish. The request for data must then be directed to the entity that holds the encryption keys. Likewise, a rogue administrator, a hacker or government entity would only be able view unintelligible gibberish if they gained access to the user account.

Not Some Kind of Magic
In order to deliver on the promise of encryption in use, the gateway must deliver on a robust set of functionality requirements: comprehensive service functionality and water-tight security based on a strong encryption scheme. What this means in practical terms is that the entirety of the service’s functional elements and behavior must be mapped, and that the encryption scheme must allow for preserving functionality without compromising security. This is because the gateway must recreate the session for the cloud-facing leg, and transpose encrypted data into the flow without disrupting functionality like search, sort and index.  Otherwise, the user experience is degraded, and the value proposition of the cloud-based service of improving productivity is undermined.

Vendors face another set of choices: take shortcuts to cover as much ground to provide a superficial sense of security, or invest in extensive R&D work to deliver the optimal balance between functionality and strong security. For instance, vendors can opt to provide encryption for a just a few data fields, out of hundreds or even a few thousand, to encompass a specific subset of the enterprise’s information. Equally, they can choose to implement a cloud data encryption scheme that preserves features relying on referential integrity such as sort, search and index that is easily reversible by attackers.

By way of illustration, if the scheme involves deterministically encrypting words into very short AES blocks, the encoding pattern is consistent enough for common attacks to yield clear text from what might appear to be encrypted text. There are a variety of iterative attacks such as chosen plaintext attacks that will yield clear text if the encryption relies on a simplistic and consistent encoding pattern. So while the data may appear to be encrypted, and less engineering resources are required to support application features and functionality, the data protection in place is barely skin deep.

Encryption in use is not a kind of magic – it requires dedicated engineering expertise, with collaboration between infrastructure, information security and encryption experts. And, the encryption scheme must be tailored to a specific application or service to deliver on the appropriate balance of security and functionality.

Another significant consideration is evaluating encryption in use in the context of a specific application or service. From the customer’s perspective, it is appealing to use a single encryption platform for multiple applications. No customer wants to have to manage multiple appliances, management interfaces and vendors. The reality, however, is that to strike an acceptable balance for any risk conscious organization between security and functionality requires deep application knowledge and encryption-in-use expertise. Dig a little deeper on degree of support, or risk a gamble on production readiness. The degree of support is as critical as the extent of support.

Evaluating Encryption in Use Claims
Can enterprises rely on a standard validation for encryption in use? Precisely because encryption in use is a new area, third-party validation is a critical requirement before it is implemented in production environments. Unfortunately, the current set of standard validation and certification tests have limited applicability.

The most frequently cited third-party validation by vendors in the space is FIPS 140-2 validation. As critical as 140-2 validation is as an evaluation benchmark, and specifically required under some federal procurement mandates, it has some limitations for encryption in use.

Taking a step backward, its important to note the scope of FIPS validation. The process essentially verifies that the algorithms are implemented according to defined specifications. However, it does not provide any validation about how the platform would use the cryptographic module in order to support encryption in use.

For instance, the FIPS validation doesn't outline a set of best practices on how to use the cryptographic module. Instead, it verifies that whenever the system invokes AES encryption, the module performs AES encryption according to the standard specification.  FIPS validation is limited to the cryptographic modules used, not the overall integrity of the platform, or the encryption scheme used in production environments. While FIPS validation is an important consideration, enterprises should be aware of its limitations as the sole third party validation for encryption. In an outside world example, validation would demonstrate that a $500 bicycle lock is impervious to any lock picking attempts, but when used to lock a bike to a fire hydrant, it does nothing to protect the bike from a thief simply lifting the bike up and driving away.

Hopefully this has been useful in helping you to determine the right approach your organization can take to secure and maintain control of your data. I look forward to hearing any further points I might have missed.

More Stories By Elad Yoran

Elad is Chairman and CEO of cloud encryption company, Vaultive. His nearly 20 years in the cyber security industry spans experience as an executive, consultant, investor, investment banker and a several-time successful entrepreneur. Elad’s entrepreneurial experience includes Riptech, the pioneering provider of managed security services to governments and Fortune 500 corporations around the world, acquired by Symantec Corporation, Sentrigo, a leading provider of database security recently acquired by McAfee, and MediaSentry, a provider of anti-piracy technology solutions to the motion picture, music and software industries, acquired by SafeNet. Elad has also served as Vice President, Global Business Development at Symantec and as Vice President at Broadview International (acquired by Jeffries), an investment bank focusing on mergers and acquisitions in the technology industry, where he led the firm’s information security practice. Elad has been recognized as “Entrepreneur of the Year” by Ernst & Young.

@ThingsExpo Stories
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...
"IoT is going to be a huge industry with a lot of value for end users, for industries, for consumers, for manufacturers. How can we use cloud to effectively manage IoT applications," stated Ian Khan, Innovation & Marketing Manager at Solgeniakhela, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Onalytica. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
Information technology is an industry that has always experienced change, and the dramatic change sweeping across the industry today could not be truthfully described as the first time we've seen such widespread change impacting customer investments. However, the rate of the change, and the potential outcomes from today's digital transformation has the distinct potential to separate the industry into two camps: Organizations that see the change coming, embrace it, and successful leverage it; and...
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to simplify and streamline our lives by automating routine tasks that distract us from our goals. This promise is based on the ubiquitous deployment of smart, connected devices that link everything from industrial control systems to automobiles to refrigerators. Unfortunately, comparatively few of the devices currently deployed have been developed with an eye toward security, and as the DDoS attacks of late October 2016 have demonstrated, this oversight can ...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to impr...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Businesses and business units of all sizes can benefit from cloud computing, but many don't want the cost, performance and security concerns of public cloud nor the complexity of building their own private clouds. Today, some cloud vendors are using artificial intelligence (AI) to simplify cloud deployment and management. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Ajay Gulati, Co-founder and CEO of ZeroStack, will discuss how AI can simplify cloud operations. He will cover the following topics: why clou...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. @ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
"ReadyTalk is an audio and web video conferencing provider. We've really come to embrace WebRTC as the platform for our future of technology," explained Dan Cunningham, CTO of ReadyTalk, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at WebRTC Summit at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Successful digital transformation requires new organizational competencies and capabilities. Research tells us that the biggest impediment to successful transformation is human; consequently, the biggest enabler is a properly skilled and empowered workforce. In the digital age, new individual and collective competencies are required. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bob Newhouse, CEO and founder of Agilitiv, drew together recent research and lessons learned from emerging and established compa...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Everyone knows that truly innovative companies learn as they go along, pushing boundaries in response to market changes and demands. What's more of a mystery is how to balance innovation on a fresh platform built from scratch with the legacy tech stack, product suite and customers that continue to serve as the business' foundation. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, discussed why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and mor...
We are always online. We access our data, our finances, work, and various services on the Internet. But we live in a congested world of information in which the roads were built two decades ago. The quest for better, faster Internet routing has been around for a decade, but nobody solved this problem. We’ve seen band-aid approaches like CDNs that attack a niche's slice of static content part of the Internet, but that’s it. It does not address the dynamic services-based Internet of today. It does...
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...