Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Roger Strukhoff, Michael Kanasoot, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: CloudExpo® Blog, Java IoT, @MicroservicesE Blog, @ContainersExpo Blog, Cloud Security, BigDataExpo® Blog

CloudExpo® Blog: Article

Encryption in Use Deep Dive

What you need to know to secure and control your data

Encryption in Use – Fact and Fiction
Risk-conscious enterprises across the globe have been reluctant to embrace the public cloud model. For many, compliance requirements are the source of the reluctance. For others, concerns about ceding control of their data to a cloud service provider, without the cloud service provider accepting liability for customer data, is the major hurdle. Conforming to data residency regulations, when implementing a distributed services model, present a further complication. Even as these challenges to adoption loom large, the economics and productivity benefits of cloud-based services remain compelling. For these organizations to make the transition to the cloud, a range of elements must be in place, including continuous monitoring of the cloud service provider’s data center, enforcement of appropriate service level agreements, data classification and definition of internal processes to manage cloud-based services.  Encryption in use is a critical piece of this puzzle, since it provides a mechanism for the enterprise to extend their boundary of control to their data stored and processed within the cloud service provider's environment. However, not all encryption in use is created equally, secure, and a generic. A one size fits all approach is likely to fall short in providing a balance between security and functionality.

The Case for Encryption in Use
For almost as long as the field of information security has been in existence, encryption of data at rest and encryption of data in transit have served as cornerstone technologies to prevent access to sensitive, proprietary, confidential or regulated data. Both forms of encryption operate through exchange and presentation of a combination of public and private keys that unlock the encrypted data. The great step forward for modern cryptography was the idea that the key that you use to encrypt your data could be made public while the key that is used to decrypt your data could be kept private. The purpose of both is to ensure that only users or systems with access to the key could access the data.

Encryption in use provides functionality that is almost counter-intuitive to the purpose behind modern encryption for data at rest and data in transit, working to ensure that the data remains in an encrypted state, even as users interact with the data, performing operations like search or sort, for example. However, just like encryption for other states of data, encryption in use serves a clear need. Without encryption in use, organizations cannot retain ownership and control of their data stored and processed in a cloud-based service – whether control is required to address security, compliance, data residency, privacy or governance needs. Encryption in use is similar to format preserving encryption in that it is applied in real time, but allows for a far broader range of cloud service functionality and feature support.

Encryption in use enables enterprises to independently secure their data stored and processed at cloud service providers – while holding on to the encryption keys. The ongoing revelations of government surveillance that are supported by laws compelling cloud service providers to hand over customer data, highlight the challenge that end users face of meeting their obligations to retain direct control of their cloud data.  The recent set of recommendations from the Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies appointed by the White House focused on implementing better privacy steps is only the first step in revisiting policies.

Because encryption in use is an emerging area, the technology can be easily misunderstood, or even easily misrepresented. Typically, encryption in use entails the use of a gateway, or proxy, architecture. The user accesses the application via the gateway – whether the application server is in the cloud or on premise.  The key to decrypt the data resides in the gateway (or in an integrated HSM), ensuring that data stored and processed at the server is persistently encrypted, even as the encryption is entirely transparent to the user. Were the user to access the server directly, bypassing the gateway, the data would simply appear as a string of encrypted gibberish.  As long as the gateway remains under the data owner’s control, only authorized users can gain access to the data stored and processed at the cloud service provider, or other third party.

In the event that the cloud service provider is required to hand over customer data in response to a government subpoena, they must their meet their legal obligation. However, if encryption in use has been implemented, the service provider can only hand over encrypted gibberish. The request for data must then be directed to the entity that holds the encryption keys. Likewise, a rogue administrator, a hacker or government entity would only be able view unintelligible gibberish if they gained access to the user account.

Not Some Kind of Magic
In order to deliver on the promise of encryption in use, the gateway must deliver on a robust set of functionality requirements: comprehensive service functionality and water-tight security based on a strong encryption scheme. What this means in practical terms is that the entirety of the service’s functional elements and behavior must be mapped, and that the encryption scheme must allow for preserving functionality without compromising security. This is because the gateway must recreate the session for the cloud-facing leg, and transpose encrypted data into the flow without disrupting functionality like search, sort and index.  Otherwise, the user experience is degraded, and the value proposition of the cloud-based service of improving productivity is undermined.

Vendors face another set of choices: take shortcuts to cover as much ground to provide a superficial sense of security, or invest in extensive R&D work to deliver the optimal balance between functionality and strong security. For instance, vendors can opt to provide encryption for a just a few data fields, out of hundreds or even a few thousand, to encompass a specific subset of the enterprise’s information. Equally, they can choose to implement a cloud data encryption scheme that preserves features relying on referential integrity such as sort, search and index that is easily reversible by attackers.

By way of illustration, if the scheme involves deterministically encrypting words into very short AES blocks, the encoding pattern is consistent enough for common attacks to yield clear text from what might appear to be encrypted text. There are a variety of iterative attacks such as chosen plaintext attacks that will yield clear text if the encryption relies on a simplistic and consistent encoding pattern. So while the data may appear to be encrypted, and less engineering resources are required to support application features and functionality, the data protection in place is barely skin deep.

Encryption in use is not a kind of magic – it requires dedicated engineering expertise, with collaboration between infrastructure, information security and encryption experts. And, the encryption scheme must be tailored to a specific application or service to deliver on the appropriate balance of security and functionality.

Another significant consideration is evaluating encryption in use in the context of a specific application or service. From the customer’s perspective, it is appealing to use a single encryption platform for multiple applications. No customer wants to have to manage multiple appliances, management interfaces and vendors. The reality, however, is that to strike an acceptable balance for any risk conscious organization between security and functionality requires deep application knowledge and encryption-in-use expertise. Dig a little deeper on degree of support, or risk a gamble on production readiness. The degree of support is as critical as the extent of support.

Evaluating Encryption in Use Claims
Can enterprises rely on a standard validation for encryption in use? Precisely because encryption in use is a new area, third-party validation is a critical requirement before it is implemented in production environments. Unfortunately, the current set of standard validation and certification tests have limited applicability.

The most frequently cited third-party validation by vendors in the space is FIPS 140-2 validation. As critical as 140-2 validation is as an evaluation benchmark, and specifically required under some federal procurement mandates, it has some limitations for encryption in use.

Taking a step backward, its important to note the scope of FIPS validation. The process essentially verifies that the algorithms are implemented according to defined specifications. However, it does not provide any validation about how the platform would use the cryptographic module in order to support encryption in use.

For instance, the FIPS validation doesn't outline a set of best practices on how to use the cryptographic module. Instead, it verifies that whenever the system invokes AES encryption, the module performs AES encryption according to the standard specification.  FIPS validation is limited to the cryptographic modules used, not the overall integrity of the platform, or the encryption scheme used in production environments. While FIPS validation is an important consideration, enterprises should be aware of its limitations as the sole third party validation for encryption. In an outside world example, validation would demonstrate that a $500 bicycle lock is impervious to any lock picking attempts, but when used to lock a bike to a fire hydrant, it does nothing to protect the bike from a thief simply lifting the bike up and driving away.

Hopefully this has been useful in helping you to determine the right approach your organization can take to secure and maintain control of your data. I look forward to hearing any further points I might have missed.

More Stories By Elad Yoran

Elad is Chairman and CEO of cloud encryption company, Vaultive. His nearly 20 years in the cyber security industry spans experience as an executive, consultant, investor, investment banker and a several-time successful entrepreneur. Elad’s entrepreneurial experience includes Riptech, the pioneering provider of managed security services to governments and Fortune 500 corporations around the world, acquired by Symantec Corporation, Sentrigo, a leading provider of database security recently acquired by McAfee, and MediaSentry, a provider of anti-piracy technology solutions to the motion picture, music and software industries, acquired by SafeNet. Elad has also served as Vice President, Global Business Development at Symantec and as Vice President at Broadview International (acquired by Jeffries), an investment bank focusing on mergers and acquisitions in the technology industry, where he led the firm’s information security practice. Elad has been recognized as “Entrepreneur of the Year” by Ernst & Young.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The Internet of Things is not new. Historically, smart businesses have used its basic concept of leveraging data to drive better decision making and have capitalized on those insights to realize additional revenue opportunities. So, what has changed to make the Internet of Things one of the hottest topics in tech? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Gray, Director, Embedded and Internet of Things, discussed the underlying factors that are driving the economics of intelligent systems. Discover how hardware commoditization, the ubiquitous nature of connectivity, and the emergence of Big Data a...
Health care systems across the globe are under enormous strain, as facilities reach capacity and costs continue to rise. M2M and the Internet of Things have the potential to transform the industry through connected health solutions that can make care more efficient while reducing costs. In fact, Vodafone's annual M2M Barometer Report forecasts M2M applications rising to 57 percent in health care and life sciences by 2016. Lively is one of Vodafone's health care partners, whose solutions enable older adults to live independent lives while staying connected to loved ones. M2M will continue to gr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MetraTech, now part of Ericsson, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Ericsson is the driving force behind the Networked Society- a world leader in communications infrastructure, software and services. Some 40% of the world’s mobile traffic runs through networks Ericsson has supplied, serving more than 2.5 billion subscribers.
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In this session, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, will describe how to revolutionize your architecture and...
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, will analyze how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Pay...
As the Internet of Things unfolds, mobile and wearable devices are blurring the line between physical and digital, integrating ever more closely with our interests, our routines, our daily lives. Contextual computing and smart, sensor-equipped spaces bring the potential to walk through a world that recognizes us and responds accordingly. We become continuous transmitters and receivers of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Bolwell, Director of Innovation for HP's Printing and Personal Systems Group, discussed how key attributes of mobile technology – touch input, sensors, social, and ...
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo, June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be
SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BMC delivers software solutions that help IT transform digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive business advantage. BMC has worked with thousands of leading companies to create and deliver powerful IT management services. From mainframe to cloud to mobile, BMC pairs high-speed digital innovation with robust IT industrialization – allowing customers to provide amazing user experiences with optimized IT per...
The world is at a tipping point where the technology, the device and global adoption are converging to such a point that we will see an explosion of a world where smartphone devices not only allow us to talk to each other, but allow for communication between everything – serving as a central hub from which we control our world – MediaTek is at the heart of both driving this and allowing the markets to drive this reality forward themselves. The next wave of consumer gadgets is here – smart, connected, and small. If your ambitions are big, so are ours. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jack Hu, D...
The multi-trillion economic opportunity around the "Internet of Things" (IoT) is emerging as the hottest topic for investors in 2015. As we connect the physical world with information technology, data from actions, processes and the environment can increase sales, improve efficiencies, automate daily activities and minimize risk. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ed Maguire, Senior Analyst at CLSA Americas, will describe what is new and different about IoT, explore financial, technological and real-world impact across consumer and business use cases. Why now? Significant corporate and venture...
Today’s enterprise is being driven by disruptive competitive and human capital requirements to provide enterprise application access through not only desktops, but also mobile devices. To retrofit existing programs across all these devices using traditional programming methods is very costly and time consuming – often prohibitively so. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO, President, and Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., discussed how you can create applications that run on all mobile devices as well as laptops and desktops using a visual drag-and-drop application – and eForms-buildi...
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will addresses this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that O'Reilly Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. O'Reilly Media spreads the knowledge of innovators through its books, online services, magazines, and conferences. Since 1978, O'Reilly Media has been a chronicler and catalyst of cutting-edge development, homing in on the technology trends that really matter and spurring their adoption by amplifying "faint signals" from the alpha geeks who are creating the future. An active participa...
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
2015 predictions circa 1970: houses anticipate our needs and adapt, city infrastructure is citizen and situation aware, office buildings identify and preprocess you. Today smart buildings have no such collective conscience, no shared set of fundamental services to identify, predict and synchronize around us. LiveSpace and M2Mi are changing that. LiveSpace Smart Environment devices deliver over the M2Mi IoT Platform real time presence, awareness and intent analytics as a service to local connected devices. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Sarah Cooper, VP Business of Development at M2Mi, will d...
Thanks to widespread Internet adoption and more than 10 billion connected devices around the world, companies became more excited than ever about the Internet of Things in 2014. Add in the hype around Google Glass and the Nest Thermostat, and nearly every business, including those from traditionally low-tech industries, wanted in. But despite the buzz, some very real business questions emerged – mainly, not if a device can be connected, or even when, but why? Why does connecting to the cloud create greater value for the user? Why do connected features improve the overall experience? And why do...
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.