Click here to close now.



Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Jnan Dash, SmartBear Blog, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Sanjay Uppal

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing

Microservices Expo: Article

SOA World Expo: Enterprise Mashup Services

Part 1: Real-World SOA or Web 2.0 Novelties?

Since Web 2.0 kicked off scarcely a day goes by without a headline targeting mashups and their enablers, AJAX and Web Services, as the next hot Web technologies. Mashups are Web sites that integrate a variety of services (e.g., news feeds, weather reports, maps, and traffic conditions) in new and interesting ways. Just take a look at Zillow.com, which provides instant home valuations plotted as thumbtacks on a map (Figure 1), or HousingMaps.com, which marks listings from craigslist.org as captions on a map, and you'll get a clear picture of the power behind converging data sources.

Google Maps is often identified as the disruptive force that spawned the mashups movement. The popular mapping service is now the home of more than 600 mashups according to ProgrammableWeb.com. Why the hype? Google Maps provides a simple JavaScript API that makes geo-spatial data, a historically cost-prohibitive service, easily accessible to a broad audience with a variety of technical skills. Web 2.0-savvy developers are highly attracted to this simplified and accessible approach to SOA development because it no longer confines their Web site functionally to a user interface, but opens the site up to syndicate functionality and data. Thus a site's success is no longer based on traffic alone, but on the number of subscribers. The proliferation of these services is mind-boggling. ProgrammableWeb.com, a mashup-tracking site, has more than 300 registered services available to mix-and-match, and more than 1,100 registered mashups. Roughly 2.8 new sites are registered every day.

Despite the momentum behind mashups, corporate IT departments only consume a handful of the services used by the mashup crowd. Instead, businesses have constructed their own ecosystem of services in parallel to the Web 2.0 movement. The problem with corporate adoption of mashups is two-fold. First, the concept of mashups is often considered a social phenomenon or a grassroots effort tangential to enterprise software. Second, there's no clear path to integrate business services with those available on the Web. This second issue is due, in part, to the impedance mismatch between business services and mashup services. Mashup APIs are generally written in JavaScript, while services deployed to the enterprise are developed using Java or .NET technologies. Thus, both perception and technology define the barriers to corporations adopting an enterprise mashup strategy that incorporates external services such as Google Maps.

Despite these initial hurdles, the services and collaborative development style that mashups provide have created a buzz among enterprise software vendors. IBM recently announced a R&D effort to create an enterprise "mashup maker" - a tool that lets developers blend corporate services with external services, and rapidly assemble applications. More recently, Oracle announced the Oracle WebCenter Suite, which uses JSR-168/286 and WSRP 1.0/2.0 to mix-and-match corporate services using a combination of AJAX and Java portlets. The "mashup maker" and "mashups as a portal" are both interesting concepts and quite possibly the future of rapid business application development. In a later installment we will take a closer look at JSR-168/286 and WSRP 1.0/2.0 and how these standards can be used to create enterprise mashups that mix corporate services. Meanwhile, the aim of this article is to give application developers, specifically enterprise Java developers, the tools to build meaningful enterprise mashups that take advantage of the popular mashup services.

Today's Toolkit
Business services developed with Java technologies generally fall into one of four categories: Enterprise JavaBeans, Spring, POJOs, or Web Services. The problem is that mashup APIs are generally implemented with JavaScript. There are a few services such as Flickr that offer parallel APIs written in Java, .NET, and a number of other technologies. For sites that don't offer a Java API, developers are left to their own devices to bridge the integration gap between JavaScript and Java. Existing Web Services provide the most direct path to integration, and processing XML over XMLHttpRequests, though tedious, is a relatively established method of binding AJAX-enabled interfaces to Web Services. There are a number of JavaScript packages, such as the vcXMLRPC Library, that help simplify the handling of XML-RPC requests. However, integrating Java-centric applications built with Spring or Enterprise JavaBeans makes for a more interesting problem. The first solution that comes to mind is to expose an existing EJB or Spring application as a Web Service, a simple task given that both EJB 3.0 and Spring 2.0 support remote method invocations via a Web Service end-point (JSR 181). Despite the simplicity of creating such a Web Service, we are still presented with the cumbersome task of processing XML with JavaScript.

Java-to-AJAX libraries such as Direct Web Remoting (DWR) and JSON-RPC-Java offer a simple alternative by marshaling Java objects to JavaScript and letting JavaScript communicate directly with server-side Java objects (Figure 2). So developers can interact with Java objects as if they were client-side JavaScript objects, negating the need to work with XML. For instance, by using a Java-to-AJAX library we can expose operations performed by a session bean to an AJAX-enabled Web interface and then combine the outcomes of those operations with a mashup service. An added benefit of the servlet architecture used by DWR and JSON-RPC-Java is that both libraries can take advantage of the authentication and session management provided by Java EE 5. Despite the similarities shared by both DWR and JSON-RPC-Java, DWR has a few advantages, two of which are the ability to handle recursive object structures and its integration with a large number of other libraries and frameworks such as Spring, Struts, JSF, Rife, WebWorks, and Hibernate. Thus, the amalgamation of DWR, enterprise Java services, and JavaScript mashup APIs blends the flexibility and creativity behind Web 2.0 with the reliability, scalability, and security of the Java EE architecture without needing to manipulate XML documents.

Building an Enterprise Mashup
The example application referenced in this article uses the Java Persistence API (JPA), Google Maps, and DWR to create a simple customer address book application (Figure 3). The application plots customers by address on a map using Google Map's JavaScript API. Users can update an entry by selecting a marker on a map and editing associated values in a form. Changes are committed by clicking the update, remove, and create. All records are stored in an Oracle database and persisted using the JPA.

The application provides a simple end-to-end example that demonstrates one method of blending external mashup services with Java-centric business services. Note that this article does not provide an in-depth look at DWR, JPA, or Google Maps. Instead, the intention is to prove the simplicity of integration between these technologies and enable you, the reader, to build your own enterprise mashups that leverage popular JavaScript APIs like Google Maps. Please refer to the references included in this article for more information on DWR, JPA, and Google Maps.

Setting up the DWR servlet is simple and can easily be added to an existing application. To install the servlet, first put the DWR jar in the lib directory under the WEB-INF directory, and add the following lines to the web.xml descriptor:

<servlet>
   <display-name>DWR Servlet</display-name>
   <servlet-name>dwr-invoker</servlet-name>
   <servlet-class>uk.ltd.getahead.dwr.DWRServlet
   </servlet-class>
   <init-param>
     <param-name>debug</param-name>
     <param-value>true</param-value>
     </init-param>
  </servlet>
  <servlet-mapping>
     <servlet-name>dwr-invoker</servlet-name>
     <url-pattern>/dwr/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>

Next, DWR must be made aware of the Java objects that should be remotable as JavaScript interfaces. The Customers object is the single JPA entity used in the application and maps to a Customers table (Listing 1). A session façade named JavaServiceFacade is used to encapsulate operations on the Customers entity object (Listing 2). Both the JavaServiceFacade and Customers classes must be registered with DWR to interact with each object via JavaScript. To do so, simply create a dwr.xml file in the WEB-INF directory as follows:

<dwr>
   <allow>
   <create creator="new" javascript="JavaServiceFacade">
   <param name="class" value="com...JavaServiceFacade"/>
     <include method="queryCustomersFindAll"/>
     <include method="queryCustomersFindById"/>
     <include method="mergeCustomers"/>
     <include method="persistCustomers"/>
     <include method="removeCustomers"/>
   </create>
   <convert converter="bean" match="com...Customers"/>
    </allow>
</dwr>

The dwr.xml descriptor defines a subset of methods on the JavaServiceFacade object to expose and declares a JavaBean converter to marshal the Customers entity as a return value or method parameter. In this example, two query methods as well as the merge, persist, and remove operations contained in the JavaServiceFacade are exposed. Once the dwr.xml file is created, three JavaScript files must be imported in the JSP or HTML pages contained in the application. This enables the use of the JavaScript representation or remote interfaces of the JavaServiceFacade and Customers Java objects. The imports are as follows:

<script type='text/javascript'
src='../dwr/interface/JavaServiceFacade.js'></script>
<script type='text/javascript' src='../dwr/engine.js'></script>
<script type='text/javascript' src='../dwr/util.js'></script>

Note that only the JavaScript interface for the JavaServiceFacade is imported because it's the sole object that contains methods that are invoked explicitly. With the web.xml file configured, the dwr.xml file created, and all the necessary JavaScript files imported, the methods contained in the JavaServiceFacade are now accessible from a Web browser via JavaScript. To test the installation, open a Web browser and navigate to http://localhost:[port]/[nameofwebapp]/dwr. A screen should appear resembling that shown in Figure 4. Figure 5 shows all of the methods on the JavaServiceFacade that are accessible remotely.

The next step is to integrate the JavaScript interface for the JavaServiceFacade with the Google Maps API. To use the Google Maps API, an activation key is required. Visit www.google.com/apis/maps/signup.html to obtain a key. Keys are mapped to a unique URL so the key included in this article will only work with the source code provided. To use a key different from the one included in this example, simply add the following import statement to the top of your JSP page, replacing the key contained in the URL with the one obtained from the Google Maps registration page. The import below is required in the JSP page irrespective of the activation key used.

<script src="http://maps.google.com/maps?file=api&v=2&key=value"
type="text/javascript"></script>

With both DWR and Google Maps configured, DWR calls to the JPA façade and the Google Maps API can be integrated. A simple load function and a div tag, in this case named "map," are used to initialize the mapping UI. The load function is assigned to the onload attribute of the body tag in the HTML or JSP page. Note that if you're using Dojo you must use the frameworks dojo.addOnLoad function instead of the onload attribute. The load function used in the example application not only initializes the Google Maps API, but also calls the queryCustomersFindAll function defined in the JavaServiceFacade JavaScript interface to retrieve all the Customers objects. The JavaServiceFacade.queryCustomersFindAll function accepts a reference to another function as an argument. The argument handles the return value of the JavaServiceFacade.queryCustomersFindAll function as an asynchronous callback. In this case the callback handler is the processCustomers function, which processes the list of Customers returned by the JavaServiceFacade.queryCustomersFindAll function, plotting each Customers object on the map as a marker (Figure 6).

// Called on intial page load
function load() {
   if(GBrowserIsCompatible()){
     // Remotely call Java method
     // to extract all Customers
     JavaServiceFacade.queryCustomersFindAll(processCustomers);
     // Initalize map object
     map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map"));
     // Add navigation controls to map
     map.addControl(new GSmallMapControl());
     map.addControl(new GMapTypeControl());
     // Initalize geocoder
     geocoder = new GClientGeocoder();
   }
}

// Plots an array of Customers on
var processCustomers =
   function(customers){
   // test if array is null
   if(customers != null &&
     typeof customers == 'object'){
     // iterator over array of customers
     for(var i=0;i < customers.length; i++){
       // plot each customer on the map
       addMarkerForCustomer( customers[i] );
       }
   } else {
     alert("Customer record is null!");
   }
   // Set map center and magnification
   map.setCenter(
     new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 9);
}

Plotting markers with Google Maps requires three simple steps. First, a geo-spatial point on the map is obtained by using the Google geocoder API. Second, a GMarker object representing the geo-spatial is created. Finally, the marker is added to the map at the given point by calling the addOverlay function on the current instance of the GMap2 object - the object that represents the map displayed in the UI. Below is the function used to plot a Customers object as a marker. In the example a geo-spatial point is generated with the address information provided by the Customers object. A helper function is used to create a new GMarker, which is then added to the map object with a call to the addOverlay function.

// Plots a customer on the map as a marker
function addMarkerForCustomer(customer){
...
   // create address string
   var address = customer.address + ...;
   // create point using geocoder
   geocoder.getLatLng(
     address,
     function(point) {
     ...
     // create marker
     var marker = createMarker(point, customer);
     // overlay marker on map
     map.addOverlay(marker);
     }
   );
...
}


More Stories By Ric Smith

Ric Smith is director, business and product strategy at Kaazing. provides Kaazing Corporation with a wealth of experience in product management and consulting for enterprise products and services. Prior to joining Kaazing, Ric was a principal product manager for Oracle's Fusion Middleware at Oracle's Headquarters in Redwood Shores, CA. In his role as a Principal Product Manager he was responsible for the evangelism and product direction of Oracle's AJAX and Java EE Web Tier offerings. Before joining the Fusion Middleware team, Ric worked for Oracle's consulting business as a principal consultant where he led development of mission-critical applications for prominent organizations within the defense/intelligence industry. In addition, Ric won consecutive awards for technical achievement for each year of his tenure as a consultant. Ric is a frequent speaker at international events and has written articles featured in leading industry publications such as Java Developer's Journal and AJAXWorld Magazine. He is also a representative to the OpenAjax Alliance and an honors graduate of the University of Arizona.

Comments (3) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
EdwinVDS 10/31/08 06:25:43 AM EDT

I have started a poll on the subject of Enterprise Mashups here : http://www.micropoll.com/akira/TakeSurvey?id=1086551

S&S Media 02/01/07 06:11:27 AM EST

Webinale 07 - A Conference For the Next Generation Web
The Web is in motion! It's about conversations, interpersonal networking, personalization, and individualism. The need for immediacy, interactivity, and community, combined with new and light-weight technologies are changing the social structure of the Web. The Next Generation Web is about getting associated with openness, trust, authenticity and collaboration. Interactivity, new possibilities to connect, social software, usability, and community networking are fast catching up with users. This new buzz is generating fresh and exciting projects. The latest buzzword is Web 2.0, and the event for anyone seeking to stay on top of this buzz is Webinale 2.0!
More info at www.webinale.com

SOA News Desk 01/22/07 03:24:59 PM EST

Since Web 2.0 kicked off scarcely a day goes by without a headline targeting mashups and their enablers, AJAX and Web Services, as the next hot Web technologies. Mashups are Web sites that integrate a variety of services (e.g., news feeds, weather reports, maps, and traffic conditions) in new and interesting ways. Just take a look at Zillow.com, which provides instant home valuations plotted as thumbtacks on a map (Figure 1), or HousingMaps.com, which marks listings from craigslist.org as captions on a map, and you'll get a clear picture of the power behind converging data sources.

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management...
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, will provide an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profes...
SYS-CON Events announced today that VAI, a leading ERP software provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. VAI (Vormittag Associates, Inc.) is a leading independent mid-market ERP software developer renowned for its flexible solutions and ability to automate critical business functions for the distribution, manufacturing, specialty retail and service sectors. An IBM Premier Business Part...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
Fortunately, meaningful and tangible business cases for IoT are plentiful in a broad array of industries and vertical markets. These range from simple warranty cost reduction for capital intensive assets, to minimizing downtime for vital business tools, to creating feedback loops improving product design, to improving and enhancing enterprise customer experiences. All of these business cases, which will be briefly explored in this session, hinge on cost effectively extracting relevant data from ...
With the Apple Watch making its way onto wrists all over the world, it’s only a matter of time before it becomes a staple in the workplace. In fact, Forrester reported that 68 percent of technology and business decision-makers characterize wearables as a top priority for 2015. Recognizing their business value early on, FinancialForce.com was the first to bring ERP to wearables, helping streamline communication across front and back office functions. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kevin Roberts...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 ad...
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, will discuss the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filte...
As enterprises work to take advantage of Big Data technologies, they frequently become distracted by product-level decisions. In most new Big Data builds this approach is completely counter-productive: it presupposes tools that may not be a fit for development teams, forces IT to take on the burden of evaluating and maintaining unfamiliar technology, and represents a major up-front expense. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Warfield, CTO and Co-Founder of Coho Data, will dis...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including clou...
Most people haven’t heard the word, “gamification,” even though they probably, and perhaps unwittingly, participate in it every day. Gamification is “the process of adding games or game-like elements to something (as a task) so as to encourage participation.” Further, gamification is about bringing game mechanics – rules, constructs, processes, and methods – into the real world in an effort to engage people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robert Endo, owner and engagement manager of Intrepid D...
Eighty percent of a data scientist’s time is spent gathering and cleaning up data, and 80% of all data is unstructured and almost never analyzed. Cognitive computing, in combination with Big Data, is changing the equation by creating data reservoirs and using natural language processing to enable analysis of unstructured data sources. This is impacting every aspect of the analytics profession from how data is mined (and by whom) to how it is delivered. This is not some futuristic vision: it's ha...
WebRTC has had a real tough three or four years, and so have those working with it. Only a few short years ago, the development world were excited about WebRTC and proclaiming how awesome it was. You might have played with the technology a couple of years ago, only to find the extra infrastructure requirements were painful to implement and poorly documented. This probably left a bitter taste in your mouth, especially when things went wrong.
Learn how IoT, cloud, social networks and last but not least, humans, can be integrated into a seamless integration of cooperative organisms both cybernetic and biological. This has been enabled by recent advances in IoT device capabilities, messaging frameworks, presence and collaboration services, where devices can share information and make independent and human assisted decisions based upon social status from other entities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Heydt, founder of Seamless...
The IoT's basic concept of collecting data from as many sources possible to drive better decision making, create process innovation and realize additional revenue has been in use at large enterprises with deep pockets for decades. So what has changed? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Prasanna Sivaramakrishnan, Solutions Architect at Red Hat, discussed the impact commodity hardware, ubiquitous connectivity, and innovations in open source software are having on the connected universe of people, thi...
WebRTC: together these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at WebRTC Summit, Cary Bran, VP of Innovation and New Ventures at Plantronics and PLT Labs, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it may enable, complement or entirely transform.
For manufacturers, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a jumping-off point for innovation, jobs, and revenue creation. But to adequately seize the opportunity, manufacturers must design devices that are interconnected, can continually sense their environment and process huge amounts of data. As a first step, manufacturers must embrace a new product development ecosystem in order to support these products.
There are so many tools and techniques for data analytics that even for a data scientist the choices, possible systems, and even the types of data can be daunting. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Harrold, Global CTO for Big Data Solutions for EMC Corporation, showed how to perform a simple, but meaningful analysis of social sentiment data using freely available tools that take only minutes to download and install. Participants received the download information, scripts, and complete end-t...
Manufacturing connected IoT versions of traditional products requires more than multiple deep technology skills. It also requires a shift in mindset, to realize that connected, sensor-enabled “things” act more like services than what we usually think of as products. In his session at @ThingsExpo, David Friedman, CEO and co-founder of Ayla Networks, discussed how when sensors start generating detailed real-world data about products and how they’re being used, smart manufacturers can use the dat...
When it comes to IoT in the enterprise, namely the commercial building and hospitality markets, a benefit not getting the attention it deserves is energy efficiency, and IoT’s direct impact on a cleaner, greener environment when installed in smart buildings. Until now clean technology was offered piecemeal and led with point solutions that require significant systems integration to orchestrate and deploy. There didn't exist a 'top down' approach that can manage and monitor the way a Smart Buildi...