Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Roger Strukhoff, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, William Schmarzo

Related Topics: @ThingsExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Containers Expo Blog, @CloudExpo, @DXWorldExpo

@ThingsExpo: Blog Feed Post

Internet of Things (IoT) – A Technical Primer | @ThingsExpo #IoT #M2M #API #Wearables

The Internet of Things is a worldwide network of objects and devices connected to the Internet

Internet of Things (IoT) - A Technical Primer
By Omed Habib

We are rapidly moving to a brave new world of interconnected smart homes, cars, offices and factories known as the Internet of Things (IoT). Sensors and monitoring devices will touch every part of our lives. Let's take a closer look at the Internet of Things.

What Is the Internet of Things?
The Internet of Things is a worldwide network of objects and devices connected to the Internet. They are electronics, sensors, software and more. These objects connect to the Internet and can be controlled remotely via apps and programs.

Because they can be accessed via the Internet, these devices create a tremendous opportunity to integrate computers and the physical world. They will improve our lives by making things more efficient and accurate, providing economic benefits derived from more effective use of resources.

How big will the Internet of Things become? Consider these statistics:

  • According to Gartner Incorporated, by the year 2020 the Internet of Things will consist of more than 26 billion devices.
  • A survey by Pew Research Internet Project showed that 83 percent of technology experts agreed that embedded sensors and wearable computers will have significant global benefits by 2025.
  • In 2015, the United Kingdom allocated more than 40 million pounds to research the Internet of Things.

Origin of the Term "Internet of Things"
The term "Internet of Things" was originated in 1999 by Kevin Ashton, an entrepreneur from Britain. The Internet of Things goes beyond what is currently known as machine-to-machine (M2M) communications - it is broader, encompassing a wide range of devices, services, and systems.

Because these devices are interconnected, many experts believe we will experience a new level of automation in nearly every field. For example, urban planners foresee "smart cities" that can better control transportation, utilities, power and other systems by continuously monitoring services with smart sensors.

Wide Variety of Devices
The Internet of Things includes almost anything that can be connected to the Internet and monitored remotely. Heart monitoring systems, biochips in animals, electric sensors in the oceans, cars with a complete set of sensors, devices that help rescue teams, and more can be considered part of the Internet of Things.

Each system collects data using a number of various technologies and then sends that data to other devices. A simple example is a thermostat in the home. It continuously adjusts the temperature of the room based on where the homeowner sets it. Another example is the growing use of sensors in washers and dryers that use Wi-Fi for remote operation and monitoring.

Shortage of Internet Addresses
Currently, a connection to the Internet involves an IPv4 address to identify that item. IPv4 has room for over 4.3 billion addresses. However, since experts expect there to be more than 30 to 50 billion devices on the Internet, this will not be enough.

IPv6 will be able to handle all of the addresses the world needs. The IPv6 address space can accommodate millions of objects, but also needs to be able to control devices, not just monitor them. That means that IPv6 is critical to the growth of the Internet of Things in the coming years.

Automating Home Sweet Home
Home automation
is another area that will experience rapid expansion in censoring and monitoring capabilities. For example, you can program your home system to start heating the water one half hour before you wake up so that it is ready when you want to take a shower.

These developments led to the term "smart home." The next extension of the smart home is connecting multiple smart homes together, tying them into a city and statewide grid to help improve energy efficiency, monitoring and emergency services allocations.

Local Networks and Devices
Internet of Things is a series of connected systems. It might be electronic prices on store shelves that change on demand, or city buses that commuters can track on their smartphone.

In the world of business, a company needs to decide which technology they should use. A large facility like a factory requires both actuators and sensors. In that case, a wireless network is probably the best choice because it can cover a large area.

Wireless sensor networks are low-cost and low-power and run on batteries. The edge node of the sensor network is the gateway, which might also have storage and a user interface.

Connectivity Solutions
Wi-Fi is common for connecting with devices, but it needs a tremendous amount of power. New technologies exist that are inexpensive and low-power. Researchers are developing many ideas including the following:

  • Low-power batteries that can last for many months
  • Energy harvesting as a power source
  • Mesh-networking that does not need attention from operators
  • Cutting-edge protocols for operating autonomously

For example, IEEE 802.14.5 is a protocol for personal wireless networks that has a low data rate and only uses 50 percent of the power of previous generations. Experts expect that they can cut the power needs by another 50 percent in the next few years.

Any individual protocol that transports IP packets has many advantages, but no single tech solution can cover every use case. There are too many variables to find one answer with a specific amount of power, efficiency, and range - all at a low cost. For that reason, every Internet protocol (UDP, TCP, SSL, HTTP and others) should be used as much as possible.

Embedded Systems
Embedded systems mean the software to run a device is on board the device itself. Examples include video cameras, microwaves, thermostats, and systems within cars.

Today's microprocessor chips have several processors, also known as cores, and a lot of cache memory. On the other hand, a microcontroller is substantially different. It is a single-chip and contains a processor, ROM memory, RAM memory, and I/O control unit and a clock. It is sometimes called, "a computer on a chip." These microcontrollers are embedded in thousands of products including appliances, automobiles, and toys. A car, for example, has more than 70 microcontrollers handling different functions.

Most microcontrollers handle one task. Microcontrollers are used a lot in the industry because they can be programmed to handle simple instructions and operations. They can open and close a gate, or turn a switch on and off. This simplicity makes it inexpensive to create machines with much functionality. Microcontrollers come in different sizes and power, and their processors range from 4-bit to 32-bit.

Deeply Embedded Devices
An extension of embedded systems is deeply embedded devices. Once the program has been burned into the memory, the system is not programmable and requires no interaction from a user.

Deeply embedded devices are usually single-purpose devices that monitor something, perform some processing, and perform a task. They usually have wireless capability, and often are seen in network situations where many sensors are spread over a large space, for instance in a factory or on a farm.

Modern Network Protocols
In the Internet of Things, embedded devices transfer information with each other. They do not have the equivalent of what people use: browsers and social media. The Internet of Things has different protocols than the current Internet.

The "human" Internet is based on the TCP/IP Internet protocol suite. It has the following:

  • Physical layer that includes physical devices
  • Data link layer
  • Network layer, which is where the Internet is located
  • The transport layer, which includes TCP and UDP, the two transport protocols

TCP is used for most interaction on the Internet. However, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) can be "too much" for an embedded system. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a better answer for sensors and remote control of devices.

The next three layers above the transport layer are the application layer, presentation layer, and session layer. These include FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). You can make embedded devices with these protocols, but they might not be as efficient as newer protocols.

On the other hand, CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) was specially made for embedded devices and the Internet of Things. It has many advantages:

  • Uses UDP
  • Low overhead
  • Synchronous and asynchronous communication

Another popular new protocol is MQTT (M2 Telemetry Transport). It is very lightweight, bandwidth efficient, and great for constrained networks.

Current web protocols like HTTP, XML and TCP, have a lot of data overhead. Robust newer protocols like CoAP, UDP and Web Objects are more efficient. They are optimized for constrained devices and have much lower data overhead - only tens of bytes rather than hundreds or even thousands of bytes.

Along with the advantages, The Internet of Things presents several challenges. First, because everything is connected, hackers can figure out how to penetrate the systems. In April of 2014, for example, a hacker took control of a security camera in a home in Ohio. Although the manufacturer had upgraded the firmware to prevent access by outsiders, the family had not thought to upgrade the device.

This story indicates another problem: loss of privacy. If hackers can take control of devices in a home, couldn't the government, do the same thing? How much access should outside entities have to information about your health, credit rating, and other aspects of your private life? Moreover, when millions of devices are interconnected, wouldn't national security be compromised?

The Internet of Things holds a tremendous amount of promise for creating a better life for millions of people. Sensors and simple devices can make us more efficient and effective. They help use precious resources better and have the capability of solving significant problems from urban centers to rural areas. Researchers are racing to develop low-cost, low-power technology to keep up with the urgent demand for a better-connected world.

The post Internet of Things (IoT) - A Technical Primer appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog | AppDynamics.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By AppDynamics Blog

In high-production environments where release cycles are measured in hours or minutes — not days or weeks — there's little room for mistakes and no room for confusion. Everyone has to understand what's happening, in real time, and have the means to do whatever is necessary to keep applications up and running optimally.

DevOps is a high-stakes world, but done well, it delivers the agility and performance to significantly impact business competitiveness.

@ThingsExpo Stories
DevOpsSummit New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DXWorldEXPO within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of bus...
With 10 simultaneous tracks, keynotes, general sessions and targeted breakout classes, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO are two of the most important technology events of the year. Since its launch over eight years ago, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO have presented a rock star faculty as well as showcased hundreds of sponsors and exhibitors! In this blog post, we provide 7 tips on how, as part of our world-class faculty, you can deliver one of the most popular sessions at our events. But before reading...
Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo have announced the conference tracks for Cloud Expo 2018. Cloud Expo will be held June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, and November 6-8, 2018, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DX Expo within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive ov...
DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City and will bring together Cloud Computing, FinTech and Blockchain, Digital Transformation, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, AI, Machine Learning and WebRTC to one location.
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that ICOHOLDER named "Media Sponsor" of Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO. ICOHOLDER give you detailed information and help the community to invest in the trusty projects. Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO has opened its Call for Papers. The two-day event will present 20 top Blockchain experts. All speaking inquiries which covers the following information can be submitted by email to [email protected] Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO also offers s...
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.
Digital Transformation and Disruption, Amazon Style - What You Can Learn. Chris Kocher is a co-founder of Grey Heron, a management and strategic marketing consulting firm. He has 25+ years in both strategic and hands-on operating experience helping executives and investors build revenues and shareholder value. He has consulted with over 130 companies on innovating with new business models, product strategies and monetization. Chris has held management positions at HP and Symantec in addition to ...
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities - ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups.
The standardization of container runtimes and images has sparked the creation of an almost overwhelming number of new open source projects that build on and otherwise work with these specifications. Of course, there's Kubernetes, which orchestrates and manages collections of containers. It was one of the first and best-known examples of projects that make containers truly useful for production use. However, more recently, the container ecosystem has truly exploded. A service mesh like Istio addr...
Predicting the future has never been more challenging - not because of the lack of data but because of the flood of ungoverned and risk laden information. Microsoft states that 2.5 exabytes of data are created every day. Expectations and reliance on data are being pushed to the limits, as demands around hybrid options continue to grow.
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.
Poor data quality and analytics drive down business value. In fact, Gartner estimated that the average financial impact of poor data quality on organizations is $9.7 million per year. But bad data is much more than a cost center. By eroding trust in information, analytics and the business decisions based on these, it is a serious impediment to digital transformation.
Digital Transformation: Preparing Cloud & IoT Security for the Age of Artificial Intelligence. As automation and artificial intelligence (AI) power solution development and delivery, many businesses need to build backend cloud capabilities. Well-poised organizations, marketing smart devices with AI and BlockChain capabilities prepare to refine compliance and regulatory capabilities in 2018. Volumes of health, financial, technical and privacy data, along with tightening compliance requirements by...
Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management company where he learned about Bitcoin and eventually Ethereal. Andrew's role at ConsenSys Enterprise is a mul...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that "Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO" has announced that its Call for Papers is now open. The two-day event will present 20 top Blockchain experts. All speaking inquiries which covers the following information can be submitted by email to [email protected] Financial enterprises in New York City, London, Singapore, and other world financial capitals are embracing a new generation of smart, automated FinTech that eliminates many cumbersome, slow, and expe...
DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO are the world's most influential, independent events where Cloud Computing was coined and where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discuss the big picture of Digital Transformation and all of the strategies, tactics, and tools they need to realize their goals. Sponsors of DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities.
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
As IoT continues to increase momentum, so does the associated risk. Secure Device Lifecycle Management (DLM) is ranked as one of the most important technology areas of IoT. Driving this trend is the realization that secure support for IoT devices provides companies the ability to deliver high-quality, reliable, secure offerings faster, create new revenue streams, and reduce support costs, all while building a competitive advantage in their markets. In this session, we will use customer use cases...
With tough new regulations coming to Europe on data privacy in May 2018, Calligo will explain why in reality the effect is global and transforms how you consider critical data. EU GDPR fundamentally rewrites the rules for cloud, Big Data and IoT. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Adam Ryan, Vice President and General Manager EMEA at Calligo, examined the regulations and provided insight on how it affects technology, challenges the established rules and will usher in new levels of diligence arou...