Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Zakia Bouachraoui, Yeshim Deniz, Pat Romanski, Jason Bloomberg, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Java IoT, Python

@DevOpsSummit: Blog Feed Post

An Introduction to Python Frameworks – Part 1 By @OmedHabib | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps

Today, there is a wide variety of Python frameworks that make creating web applications much easier

An Introduction to Python Frameworks - Part 1
By Omed Habib

Python began life in the late 1980s. It was developed by Guido van Rossum at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, a math and computer science research center in Amsterdam Science Park in the Netherlands. Van Rossum continues to be an influential figure in the development and guidance of Python. In fact, members of the Python community have bestowed upon him the regal title of Benevolent Dictator for Life (BDFL).

From those humble beginnings, Python has grown to become one of the most popular server-side languages on the Internet. According to W3Techs, it is used by more high-traffic sites than ColdFusion, PHP, and ASP.NET. More than 98 percent of those sites are running Python 2.0, and just over one percent are using 3.0.

Frameworks Makes Life Easier
Today, there is a wide variety of Python frameworks that make creating web applications much easier. These frameworks bring together the modules and packages that allow you to build applications quickly, without the need to take care of involved details, like sockets and protocols, all in one place.

In Part 1 of this two-part article series, we will examine some of the more popular Python frameworks. While most modern Web frameworks are used on the server, some are beginning to incorporate code that lets them run code on the client (e.g., Skulpt or Trinket). Python frameworks are often separated into full-stack and non-full-stack frameworks. Full-stack frameworks help developers create applications from the user experience right through to the database. Non-full-stack frameworks are those that handle anything less than complete development.

There are also micro-frameworks, which are non-full-stack frameworks less bloat. In some situations, it makes more sense to use a complement of micro-frameworks, while other applications demand a full stack. We will take a closer look at full-stack vs. micro-frameworks in Part 2 of this series.

Django
Perhaps the Python framework with the highest profile is Django. It is an open-source framework that follows the architectural pattern of model-view-controller (MVC). It is named after Django Reinhardt, a French composer and guitarist who is widely considered one of the greatest guitar players in history. Two developers at the Lawrence Journal-World in Lawrence, Kansas, Adrian of Holovaty and Simon Willison, created Django in 2003 to build Web apps for the newspaper.

Django includes its own templating engine, as well as providing OOTB support for the widely popular Jinja2 engine. It also employs a regex based URL dispatcher, allowing complex mappings with very simple URLs.

One of Django's strengths has been that it is a single package install. Other alternatives require developers to hunt down many components just to get started. Also, Django always had extensive documentation, historically a weakness for open-source projects. It is a robust, well-integrated framework with many plug-ins and add-ons from the user community. Also, the community behind the project seems much more organized, as is evident with its thorough documentation and tutorials.

TurboGears
TurboGears
is a framework built on top of several reputable Python projects, such as SQLAlchemy, WebOb, Repoze, and Genshi. In a sense, TurboGears takes the approach of gluing together already established open platforms. Like Django, it utilizes the MVC architecture. It recently also incorporated a "minimal mode," which allows it to act as a micro-framework.

TurboGears was developed by Kevin Dangoor in 2005. He distributed it as an open-source project in September of that year. In 2013, the project developers moved to support Python 3 and away from the Pylons code base they had been working with. Some of the advantages of TurboGears include:

  • Strong support for aggregates
  • Powerful object relational mapper
  • Transaction system that takes care of multi-database transactions automatically
  • Multi-database support
  • Reusable snippets for templates
  • Lots of flexibility to incorporate non-standard components
  • Support for sharding
  • Template systems that make life easier for designers

A few of the drawbacks of TurboGears includes a very basic admin, fewer third-party apps, and rudimentary documentation. A major challenge with TurboGears is that it can be overwhelming. Because it is mash-up of other components that offer infinite flexibility, it can be overwhelming when trying to decide which path to take to complete a task.

web2py
One open-source framework, web2py, allows developers to create dynamic, interactive websites quickly. It is designed to eliminate many of the repetitive programming tasks that slow down development, like creating basic forms. In the beginning, it was created as a teaching tool. It was modeled after Django and Ruby on Rails, a framework for the Ruby language. Like TurboGears, it uses the MVC architecture.

The original source code was released in 2007 by Massimo DiPierro. At that time, it was known as the Enterprise Web Framework (EWF). Due to naming conflicts, it changed names several times and settled on web2py on Version 1.16. Several applications created using web2py include the Movuca Content Management System, music site NoobMusic, a diagnostic tool for networks called LinkFindr and the Instant Press blogging platform. In 2011, web2py captured a Bossie Award for the best open-source development software. The following year, its winning ways continued when it brought home InfoWorld's Technology of the Year award.

Like Django, web2py has extensive documentation. New and advanced developers alike can download the Complete Reference Manual for free.

Some of web2py's advantages include:

  • Easy to use. As a robust full-stack framework, it functions without any dependencies. This makes it easy to learn and deploy, as no configuration files are needed for installation. Once it is downloaded and installed, everything works. Developers get a database, a Web-based IDE, and a Web server as well as a powerful API with a number of core objects.
  • Excellent security. Web2py's template language reduces the dangers of hackers using cross-site scripting. The abstraction layer prevents SQL injections while the forms created have field validation and stop cross-site request forgeries. Sessions are stored on the server to keep bad actors from messing with browser cookies, and every password is stored hashed.

Some drawbacks to web2py include:

  • Not easy to use the administrative interface on a regular basis
  • No permissions on the administrative interface
  • No built-in unit testing support
  • Rapid development. All functions have default behaviors. Forms are generated automatically, and high-level widgets and application grids are built in.

Flask
Flask is a Python micro-framework based on Jinja2 and Werkzeug. Similar to other frameworks, it is licensed under the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a free software license that operates with few restrictions. Web sites that have used Flask include LinkedIn and Pinterest. It includes features such as:

  • Built-in unit testing support
  • Templating using Jinja2
  • Extensive documentation
  • Client-side sessions using secure cookies
  • Development server and debugger
  • RESTful request dispatching
  • Compliant with WSGI version 1.0
  • Unicode based
  • Numerous extensions

Flask is a young framework that came on the scene in 2010. The philosophical objective of Flask is to not impose conventions on the programmer, allowing you to use your choice of DB ORM, templating engine, session middleware, or other components that your project requires. This is generally, in my opinion, the purpose of a ‘microframework'.

I would say that a framework like Flask is better suited to a more experienced developer, not necessarily just to smaller applications. Of course, if you just want to make a simple REST API, then Flask is definitely good bet.

Bottle
Like Flask, Bottle is a WSGI Web framework. Distributed as a single file, it does not have any dependencies outside of the Python Standard Library. Written by Marcel Hellkamp in 2009, it has minimal tools to start including templating, routing and a WSGI abstraction layer. This small, powerful framework is great for programmers looking for flexibility and basic functionality, building simple applications and websites and creating a Web API.

Its advantages include:

  • Fast template engine that comes built-in and supports Jinja2, Mako, and Cheetah
  • Many utilities that can access uploads, cookies, form data, headers, and other metadata
  • HTTP development server built-in that supports fapws3, Google App Engine, CherryPy and Paste
  • Support for dynamic URLs

Another advantage of Bottle is that its small profile makes it easy to embed it within a larger application without worrying about system-wide dependencies. Bottle is for you if you want to create small apps with a simple, clean and fast framework that is not verbose.

Multiple Frameworks
It is hard to believe, but these are just a few of the dozens of Python frameworks available to developers. Python.org reports that Django, TurboGears, and web2py are the most popular full-stack options. Here we added two of the higher-profile micro-frameworks to provide a thorough look at the framework landscape. Other frameworks with enthusiastic followers include Pyramid, web.py, Bobo, Albatross and CherryPy.

Finding the Right Fit
Choosing the right framework depends on the size of the project, its communication needs, whether it is a standalone application or not, the level of customization that is needed, overhead and a number of other factors. Just as important, it depends on which framework feels right for your personal working style. Review these projects and download their latest release. Take a test drive to make sure you are in the right vehicle before planning a major trip.

The post An Introduction to Python Frameworks - Part 1 appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog | AppDynamics.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By AppDynamics Blog

In high-production environments where release cycles are measured in hours or minutes — not days or weeks — there's little room for mistakes and no room for confusion. Everyone has to understand what's happening, in real time, and have the means to do whatever is necessary to keep applications up and running optimally.

DevOps is a high-stakes world, but done well, it delivers the agility and performance to significantly impact business competitiveness.

IoT & Smart Cities Stories
All in Mobile is a place where we continually maximize their impact by fostering understanding, empathy, insights, creativity and joy. They believe that a truly useful and desirable mobile app doesn't need the brightest idea or the most advanced technology. A great product begins with understanding people. It's easy to think that customers will love your app, but can you justify it? They make sure your final app is something that users truly want and need. The only way to do this is by ...
Digital Transformation and Disruption, Amazon Style - What You Can Learn. Chris Kocher is a co-founder of Grey Heron, a management and strategic marketing consulting firm. He has 25+ years in both strategic and hands-on operating experience helping executives and investors build revenues and shareholder value. He has consulted with over 130 companies on innovating with new business models, product strategies and monetization. Chris has held management positions at HP and Symantec in addition to ...
Dynatrace is an application performance management software company with products for the information technology departments and digital business owners of medium and large businesses. Building the Future of Monitoring with Artificial Intelligence. Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more busine...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that Big Data Federation to Exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO, colocated with DevOpsSUMMIT and DXWorldEXPO, November 12-13, 2018 in New York City. Big Data Federation, Inc. develops and applies artificial intelligence to predict financial and economic events that matter. The company uncovers patterns and precise drivers of performance and outcomes with the aid of machine-learning algorithms, big data, and fundamental analysis. Their products are deployed...
The challenges of aggregating data from consumer-oriented devices, such as wearable technologies and smart thermostats, are fairly well-understood. However, there are a new set of challenges for IoT devices that generate megabytes or gigabytes of data per second. Certainly, the infrastructure will have to change, as those volumes of data will likely overwhelm the available bandwidth for aggregating the data into a central repository. Ochandarena discusses a whole new way to think about your next...
CloudEXPO | DevOpsSUMMIT | DXWorldEXPO are the world's most influential, independent events where Cloud Computing was coined and where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discuss the big picture of Digital Transformation and all of the strategies, tactics, and tools they need to realize their goals. Sponsors of DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities.
Cell networks have the advantage of long-range communications, reaching an estimated 90% of the world. But cell networks such as 2G, 3G and LTE consume lots of power and were designed for connecting people. They are not optimized for low- or battery-powered devices or for IoT applications with infrequently transmitted data. Cell IoT modules that support narrow-band IoT and 4G cell networks will enable cell connectivity, device management, and app enablement for low-power wide-area network IoT. B...
The hierarchical architecture that distributes "compute" within the network specially at the edge can enable new services by harnessing emerging technologies. But Edge-Compute comes at increased cost that needs to be managed and potentially augmented by creative architecture solutions as there will always a catching-up with the capacity demands. Processing power in smartphones has enhanced YoY and there is increasingly spare compute capacity that can be potentially pooled. Uber has successfully ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 22nd International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 5–7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buye...
When talking IoT we often focus on the devices, the sensors, the hardware itself. The new smart appliances, the new smart or self-driving cars (which are amalgamations of many ‘things'). When we are looking at the world of IoT, we should take a step back, look at the big picture. What value are these devices providing. IoT is not about the devices, its about the data consumed and generated. The devices are tools, mechanisms, conduits. This paper discusses the considerations when dealing with the...