Java IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz, Carmen Gonzalez, Jim Kaskade, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: Java IoT

Java IoT: Article

What is Java Reflection?

What is Java Reflection?

Welcome to the Java Reflection universe. Once you've been there, you'll never think about programming the way you used to.

Imagine that you're a C++ programmer and you have to implement the following program:

1. Ask for a class name.
2. Create an object of that class.
3. Show the field names for the object and their values.

Ouch! As a C++ programmer you'll start thinking about all the tables or if-then-else-if lists you'll have to create. In Java? Forty lines of code, tops! How come? Reflection uses runtime support not present in languages like C or C++. The kinds of things you can do with Reflection can't be done in those languages.

Reflection is a way of thinking; it's a metalanguage that enables you to analyze and manipulate your objects in a dynamic way. Once you see its possibilities, the sky's the limit: serialization, expression evaluation, language interpretation, class factories, object description, plug-in architectures - you name it. Reflection is one of the most exciting features of Java.

Big industrial-strength protocols like SOAP and JavaBeans wouldn't be possible if it weren't for Reflection. Every time you drag-and-drop an object in your favorite IDE into a form, Reflection is orchestrating the action behind the scenes. Actually, most sophisticated Java applications rely on Reflection in one way or another.

Reflection is an advanced feature of the Java environment. It gives runtime information about objects, classes, and interfaces. Reflection answers questions like:

  • Which class does an object belong to?
  • What is the description of a given class name?
  • What are the fields in a given class?
  • What is the type of a field?
  • What are the methods in a class?
  • What are the parameters of a method?
  • What are the constructors of a given class?
Reflection also lets you operate on objects and do things like:
  • Constructing an object using a given constructor
  • Invoking an object's method using such-and-such parameters
  • Assigning a value to an object's field
  • Dynamically creating and manipulating arrays
Now you know the spirit behind Reflection. Let's explore its technical side.

Java Reflection Classes
With the exception of the class Class that resides in the default Java package, all Reflection classes are contained in the package java.lang.reflect.

Classes are represented by the class Class, class Fields by the Field class, methods by the Method class, constructors by the Constructor class, and arrays - you guessed it - by the Array class.

Every class and interface in Java is described by a Class object. There are methods in Class to get all the information about the class: name, parent class, constructors, fields, methods, interfaces implemented, and so on.

To obtain the class that an object belongs to, you call the method Class getClass(). This method is defined in the Object class (root of the Java classes hierarchy) and is therefore available to any object.

String myString = "my string";
Class theClass = myString.getClass();

Every class in Java has a property ".class" that returns a Class object for the class.

if (myString.getClass()==String.class)
System.out.println("The object is a String");

Primitive types such as int or Boolean are represented by Class objects as well. The wrapper classes (Integer, Boolean, Double,...) contain a ".TYPE" property that returns the Class object representing the primitive type. Class Class highlights are shown in Table 1.

Class myClass = Integer.TYPE;

The Field class describes the different attributes of a Java class field. From a Field object you can get the field name, its type, and its accessibility. It also contains methods to set and get the field's value for a given object (see Listing 1). Class Field highlights are given in Table 2.

The Method class allows you to get information about class methods. You can get the method name, its type, its accessibility, and its parameter types. You can also invoke the method on a particular object and pass a set of parameters to it (see Listing 2). Class Method highlights are given in Table 3.

The Constructor class allows you to get information about class constructors such as parameter types, number of parameters, and accessibility. It also lets you invoke the constructor to create new object instances (see Listing 3). Class Constructor highlights are shown in Table 4.

Disadvantages and Misuses
I agree that it isn't straightforward to think about thinking. Using Reflection isn't easy at the beginning. The model is simple, but you're using objects called Object, classes called Class, methods called Method..... It takes time to get used to it, but believe me, once you get comfortable with the model, what you can do with Reflection is amazing.

Up to now I've deliberately avoided the subject of exception handling. Almost every Reflection method throws exceptions, making the code very confusing. Not helping the situation is the wrapping/unwrapping of primitive types. What I've done to alleviate this is to create a ReflectionUtilities library that hides all the implementation details and lets me concentrate on my reflective task.

The methods I've introduced so far to access class members work only on public members, by default. If this weren't the case, you could fool the VM and access members illegally, jeopardizing the security of the system. You can change the default behavior, but that implies that you have the right to do so, which isn't usually the case on Web-delivered applications. This forces you to have to declare the class members that you want to expose to Reflection as public. Object-oriented advocates will tell you that this can violate the encapsulation principle.

You can use Reflection in a variety of ways, but sometimes there are better tools to accomplish the same task. Suppose you want to find out whether an object contains a certain method and, if it does, invoke it. You can do this using Reflection (see Listing 4).

Java has a cleaner way to do it, however. Declare an interface that declares the method and implement that interface in the classes that have the method. Then call the method in the following way:

if (anObject instanceof MyInterface) {
// Does anObject implements MyInterface?
((MyInterface) anObject).myMethod();    // If
it does, invoke myMethod()

This code works if you know in advance the classes that will contain myMethod and whether they implement MyInterface. If you don't know, Reflection is the way to go.

Putting Everything Together
Reflection can be used in very different contexts to achieve completely different results. And since you must be eager to see some action at this point, I'll present three cases in which Reflection delivers elegant solutions.

Case 1
Suppose you want to have a function to convert strings into colors. The strings you'd like to pass are color names, and the function should return the appropriate color:

Color myColor = ColorTools. getColorByName( "black" );
// myColor will contain the color Color.black

If you don't use Reflection, you have to maintain a mapping structure that relates color names to Color objects. If the folks at Sun decide tomorrow to introduce the pinkPanther Color constant, you'll have to add it to your map. If there are 10,000 Color constants, the map will be enormous. This is where you can utilize Reflection to analyze the Color class and find its Color constant names and their values. See ColorTools.java in Listing 5 for details. (Because of space considerations, this listing and the corresponding ones for Cases 2 and 3 appear only on the Web at www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.)

Case 2
If you develop GUIs in Java, you must be familiar with and probably resigned to using the wordy and annoying anonymous classes to connect component events to their event handlers. Well, there's still hope: by using Reflection you can remove all the anonymous classes.

The trick is to use a naming convention (usually called an idiom by the scholars) to relate the components to their events and then use Reflection to analyze the class, find the components and event handlers, add event listeners, and invoke the event handlers.

Because there's no explicit code in your form that relates handlers to events, the event handlers seem to be called by magic. This is why I like to call this methodology "Magic Couplers." Refer to MagicCoupler.java in Listing 6 to see how to accomplish it - there's no magic after all....

If you adopt this elegant technique, your GUI code will once again be about handling the events, not about connecting event handlers. Magic Couplers have two drawbacks:

1. This one, inherited from the security issues, is the need to declare the components and the event handlers as public so we can access them with Reflection.
2. The connection between events and event handlers is done now at runtime. It means there's no compile-time checking to ensure that the event handlers are named correctly. You can add code (which I removed from the example for brevity) to check that the event handlers correspond to a component and report "unlinked" event handlers.

ReflectionTest.java (see Listing 7) creates a form with a combo box that displays all the color names and two buttons that trigger their event handlers using Magic Couplers (see Figure 1).

Case 3
Another great use of Reflection is for creating application plug-ins. You can design software that allows you and third-party vendors to create extensions for it. This is accomplished very simply. First, define the plug-in interface that enables you to access the plug-in.

package plugins;

public interface MyApplicationPlugIn {
// Interface definition here

Every plug-in must implement the interface (that's what makes it a plug-in of your application).

package plugins;

public class APlugIn implements MyApplicationPlugIn {
// Interface implementation here

Now you can browse the plug-ins directory to get the plug-in names and dynamically load them by calling:

// plugInNames contains the fully qualified
names of the plug-in classes
for ( int i = 0; i < plugInNames.length; i++ ) {
MyApplicationPlugIn plugIn =
(MyApplicationPlugIn)Class.classFor( plugInNames[i] );
// Do something with the plug-in here

Java Reflection gives you a metalanguage to ask questions and manipulate classes, interfaces, and objects.

The class Class describes the different attributes of Java classes and interfaces in terms of Field, Method, and Constructor objects. These objects in turn let you inspect and manipulate object attributes and create new objects dynamically.

Now that you know the power and dangers of Java Reflection, use it wisely!

More Stories By Jose Barrera

José María Barrera is the Director of Internet Applications Development at Caminus Corp., a leading software company for the Energy Sector. He designs and creates software using Java and XML. José has been involved with computers for the last 17 years and earned a M.S. degree in Computer Science from NYU. You can contact him at [email protected]

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

@ThingsExpo Stories
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, will discuss the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docke...
As ridesharing competitors and enhanced services increase, notable changes are occurring in the transportation model. Despite the cost-effective means and flexibility of ridesharing, both drivers and users will need to be aware of the connected environment and how it will impact the ridesharing experience. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Timothy Evavold, Executive Director Automotive at Covisint, will discuss key challenges and solutions to powering a ride sharing and/or multimodal model in the a...
Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Embotics, the cloud automation company, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Embotics is the cloud automation company for IT organizations and service providers that need to improve provisioning or enable self-service capabilities. With a relentless focus on delivering a premier user experience and unmatched customer support, Embotics is the fas...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Coalfire will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Coalfire is the trusted leader in cybersecurity risk management and compliance services. Coalfire integrates advisory and technical assessments and recommendations to the corporate directors, executives, boards, and IT organizations for global brands and organizations in the technology, cloud, health...
The IoT industry is now at a crossroads, between the fast-paced innovation of technologies and the pending mass adoption by global enterprises. The complexity of combining rapidly evolving technologies and the need to establish practices for market acceleration pose a strong challenge to global enterprises as well as IoT vendors. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Clark Smith, senior product manager for Numerex, will discuss how Numerex, as an experienced, established IoT provider, has embraced a ...
Cloud based infrastructure deployment is becoming more and more appealing to customers, from Fortune 500 companies to SMEs due to its pay-as-you-go model. Enterprise storage vendors are able to reach out to these customers by integrating in cloud based deployments; this needs adaptability and interoperability of the products confirming to cloud standards such as OpenStack, CloudStack, or Azure. As compared to off the shelf commodity storage, enterprise storages by its reliability, high-availabil...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MathFreeOn will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MathFreeOn is Software as a Service (SaaS) used in Engineering and Math education. Write scripts and solve math problems online. MathFreeOn provides online courses for beginners or amateurs who have difficulties in writing scripts. In accordance with various mathematical topics, there are more tha...
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential Internet of Things Brand by Onalytica in the ‘The Internet of Things Landscape 2015: Top 100 Individuals and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed Twitter conversations around the #IoT debate to uncover the most influential brands and individuals driving the conversation. Onalytica captured data from 56,224 users. The PageRank based methodology they use to extract influencers on a particular topic (tweets mentioning #InternetofThings or #IoT in this ...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Complete Internet of Things (IoT) embedded device security is not just about the device but involves the entire product’s identity, data and control integrity, and services traversing the cloud. A device can no longer be looked at as an island; it is a part of a system. In fact, given the cross-domain interactions enabled by IoT it could be a part of many systems. Also, depending on where the device is deployed, for example, in the office building versus a factory floor or oil field, security ha...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Transparent Cloud Computing (T-Cloud) Consortium will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Transparent Cloud Computing Consortium (T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data proces...
Donna Yasay, President of HomeGrid Forum, today discussed with a panel of technology peers how certification programs are at the forefront of interoperability, and the answer for vendors looking to keep up with today's growing industry for smart home innovation. "To ensure multi-vendor interoperability, accredited industry certification programs should be used for every product to provide credibility and quality assurance for retail and carrier based customers looking to add ever increasing num...
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to impr...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Virgil consists of an open-source encryption library, which implements Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) (including RSA schema), a Key Management API, and a cloud-based Key Management Service (Virgil Keys). The Virgil Keys Service consists of a public key service and a private key escrow service. 

Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.