Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan, Frank Lupo

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Article

SCO Specifies Alleged "Offending Code"

SCO Specifies Alleged "Offending Code"

The following posting, just made in another thread here at LinuxWorld, is a cross-posting from lwn.com.]

 

This is a copy of SCO's December 19 copyright letter, as received from Avi Dines via Don Marti.

December 19, 2003


Re: The SCO Group, Inc. (“SCO”)

Dear Unix Licensee,

In May 2003, SCO warned about enterprise use of the Linux operating system in violation of its intellectual property rights in UNIX technology. Without exhausting or explaining all potential claims, this letter addresses one specific area in which certain versions of Linux violate SCO's rights in UNIX.

In this letter we are identifying a portion of our copyright protected code that has been incorporated into Linux without our authorization. Also, our copyright management information has been removed from these files.

These facts support our position that the use of the Linux operating system in a commercial setting violates our rights under the United States Copyright Act, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. We are notifying you of these facts so you can take steps to discontinue these violations. We believe these violations are serious, and we will take appropriate actions to protect our rights. No one may use our copyrighted code except as authorized by us. The details of our position are set forth below. Once you have reviewed our position, we will be happy to further discuss your options and work with you to remedy this problem.

Certain copyrighted application binary interfaces (“ABI Code”) have been copied verbatim from our copyrighted UNIX code base and contributed to Linux for distribution under the General Public License (“GPL”) without proper authorization and without copyright attribution. While some application programming interfaces (“API Code”) have been made available over the years through POSIX and other open standards, the UNIX ABI Code has only been made available under copyright restrictions. AT&T made these binary interfaces available in order to support application development to UNIX operating systems and to assist UNIX licensees in the development process. The UNIX ABIs were never intended or authorized for unrestricted use or distribution under the GPL in Linux. As the copyright holder, SCO has never granted such permission. Nevertheless, many of the ABIs contained in Linux, and improperly distributed under the GPL, are direct copies of our UNIX copyrighted software code.

Any part of any Linux file that includes the copyrighted binary interface code must be removed. Files in Linux version 2.4.21 and other versions that incorporate the copyrighted binary interfaces include:

include/asm-alpha/errno.h

include/asm-arm/errno.h

include/asm-cris/errno.h

include/asm-i386/errno.h

include/asm-ia64/errno.h

include/asm-m68k/errno.h

include/asm-mips/errno.h

include/asm-mips64/errno.h

include/asm-parisc/errno.h

include/asm-ppc/errno.h

include/asm-ppc64/errno.h

include/asm-s390/errno.h

include/asm-s390x/errno.h

include/asm-sh/errno.h

include/asm-sparc/errno.h

include/asm-sparc64/errno.h

include/asm-x86_64/errno.h

include/asm-alpha/signal.h

include/asm-arm/signal.h

include/asm-cris/signal.h

include/asm-i386/signal.h

include/asm-ia64/signal.h

include/asm-m68k/signal.h

include/asm-mips/signal.h

include/asm-mips64/signal.h

include/asm-parisc/signal.h

include/asm-ppc/signal.h

include/asm-ppc64/signal.h

include/asm-s390/signal.h

include/asm-s390x/signal.h

include/asm-sh/signal.h

include/asm-sparc/signal.h

include/asm-sparc64/signal.h

include/asm-x86_64/signal.h

include/linux/stat.h

include/linux/ctype.h

lib/ctype.c
include/asm-alpha/ioctl.h

include/asm-alpha/ioctls.h

include/asm-arm/ioctl.h

include/asm-cris/ioctl.h

include/asm-i386/ioctl.h

include/asm-ia64/ioctl.h

include/asm-m68k/ioctl.h

include/asm-mips/ioctl.h

include/asm-mips64/ioctl.h

include/asm-mips64/ioctls.h

include/asm-parisc/ioctl.h

include/asm-parisc/ioctls.h

include/asm-ppc/ioctl.h

include/asm-ppc/ioctls.h

include/asm-ppc64/ioctl.h

include/asm-ppc64/ioctls.h

include/asm-s390/ioctl.h

include/asm-s390x/ioctl.h

include/asm-sh/ioctl.h

include/asm-sh/ioctls.h

include/asm-sparc/ioctl.h

include/asm-sparc/ioctls.h

include/asm-sparc64/ioctl.h

include/asm-sparc64/ioctls.h

include/asm-x86_64/ioctl.h

include/linux/ipc.h

include/linux/acct.h

include/asm-sparc/a.out.h

include/linux/a.out.h

arch/mips/boot/ecoff.h

include/asm-sparc/bsderrno.h

include/asm-sparc/solerrno.h

include/asm-sparc64/bsderrno.h

include/asm-sparc64/solerrno.h

More Stories By Linux News Desk

SYS-CON's Linux News Desk gathers stories, analysis, and information from around the Linux world and synthesizes them into an easy to digest format for IT/IS managers and other business decision-makers.

Comments (15) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
bea 01/10/04 11:35:30 PM EST

These folks are mad indeed (SCO).

From technical point of view it
is nonsense, but I understand them,
If they win every single application
in linux will be affected ...

I think they just finished botle
of VODKA and filled an revolver
with a single bulet :))

fdearle 01/02/04 07:49:10 AM EST

This is what happens when software companies are run by people without the IQ to understand the technology they have under their control. I'm sure the folks in charge of SCO really believe that they have a case. They are just too dumb to realize that on a techical level.... this is pure balderdash.

This is like the Ford motor company deciding to take a case 20 years after the Model T was releases..... on the basis that other cars use nuts and bolts just like the Model T........

WISE UP YOU BUNCH OF POND LIFE IDIOTS!!!!!

hi_muga 12/27/03 11:12:24 PM EST

Nothing deters Santa Cruz. When they loose the case, the next thing is they'll try to sue their own lawyers for malpractice.

ryosuke 12/26/03 12:17:51 PM EST

My opinion : we need lawyers with computer science background to deal with such coding legal issues. Sadly, there ain't any experts in this world besides the normal IP lawyers that only know generic IP laws. As far as i know, commercial product IP are not the same as software IP because you cannot clearly say which line of coding belongs to you. Imagine the loop for(int i=0;i

bb 12/25/03 11:20:50 PM EST

sco has pretty much peed in the whiskey so to speak. poor folks that listen to them belating are being sold a one way ticket on the ship of fools...

Eddie Yeboah 12/24/03 03:28:30 AM EST

This would be funny if it didn't have serious repercussions on open standards.
The focus of the industry has been convergence not paying lipservice to standards but developing their own just in case some misguided fool decides to stick their neck out.

Mad as hell 12/23/03 12:00:32 PM EST

The lawyers will fight it out in court. Hopefully they will listen to the truth from the real experts, not the so called experts paid by SCO and see the truth. The only thing we can do is move forward with developement and keep an eye on what developes. There have been worse injustices commited in the courts of this country

David Mohring 12/23/03 11:30:25 AM EST

The SCO Group cannot expect to win any case based upon application interfaces which its AT&T, USL and Novell predecessors released in open standards specifically for the purpose of interoperability.

signal.h, errorno.h,and ioctl are all parts of many released standards including The Open Group and IEEE POSIX Base Specifications and the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 151-2.
http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/signal.h.html
http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/errno.h.html
http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/functions/ioctl.html

Note that The SCO Group does not own the copyrights on any of those standards and it does not own clear title to the copyrights on most of the AT&T Unix source code and manual base.
http://www.novell.com/news/press/archive/2003/12/pr03080.html

It is a requirement of the ISO, IEEE and ANSI standards body that participants involved in the development of standards must pre-declare and clearly lable and identify any section of a standard in developent that an implementation would be dependent upon a patent for which royalties must be paid.

Both AT&T and Santa Cruz Operation participated in the development of the POSIX / FIPS 151-X standards and they did not identify any such royalty/patent dependent section as required for federal endorsed standards.

In terms of copyright, anyone and any organization who has purchased an ISO standard and any subsequent recipients, are free to release implementations based upon those standards.

Linux kernel developers are free to develop implementations based upon publicly documented interfaces.

bert 12/23/03 08:05:28 AM EST

SCO's action is criminal in my part of the world and it's time for the United States to file a lawsuit against SCO's managers. It is awful to see journalist quoting SCO's press releases and it's baseless accusations. Media doesn't work, again emperor's clothes.

Max 12/23/03 07:20:25 AM EST

OK We need a real time adjustment.

It is disturbing that SCO is still allowed to be associated with UnitedLinux. There is nothing "united" about SCO and Linux, given this bogus case of theirs.

Or perhaps it is just a *money* thing as I believe fees are paid to have this association. I hope I am wrong. If not then UnitedLinux needs to stand up and refund fees to SCO and reject their association.

In other words Get lost SCO !! Fade away!.and change your name to MSSCO.

Eddie Yeboah 12/23/03 03:34:38 AM EST

This is a lot of hooho haahaa.
I always knew lawyers and technology didn't mix.
Now I have the proof.
Today, If you told an IP lawyer that an application you've written included other peoples' work given freely, (s)he'll advice you to keep it quiet.
This is sad indeed.

Unbelievable 12/23/03 03:11:47 AM EST

The question is: how do make a compatible system, such as POSIX without using UNIX header files or their derivatives.

But, as said, from a legal point of view, God knows what it means. I think Richard Stallman will be vidicated again. Developers are slowly being driven out of the development business by big business and their legal machine. You can code, only with the backing of a multi billion $ corporation. Not that many around! All this is done under a Constitutional permission to Congress to introduce monopolies which the goal of furthering the development of Science and Art. Hahaha.

Ravi 12/22/03 11:48:20 PM EST

Is SCO crazy ??? What has been listed is just header files. I was expecting some .c files which would show up as code copies. Just on the basis of these files, I do not think there is any case (This is a developer's perspective ... not a lawyers !!!). So, there better be more files with more substantial material.

Kevin Michel 12/22/03 10:48:55 PM EST

I am stunned. That is it. THAT IS IT!!! Are these people really as dumb as they appear to be?

Ok. I am going to go back to pretending that SCO doesn't exist.

dAN o'mARA 12/22/03 08:36:00 PM EST

LMAO

sCaldera has ended the year by bringing us April in December.

Never had a case, cant even make one up. It's easy to get a settlement out of the guilty, but criminal to attempt to force an unjust one from the innocent.

P.S OpenSewer 5uX0Rz, as it always did: Coherent RULES! (better paint too.)

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dasher Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dasher Technologies, Inc. ® is a premier IT solution provider that delivers expert technical resources along with trusted account executives to architect and deliver complete IT solutions and services to help our clients execute their goals, plans and objectives. Since 1999, we'v...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities – ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups. As a result, many firms employ new business models that place enormous impor...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks, that helps your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. As a premier telecommunications provider, Massive Networks is headquartered out of Louisville, Colorado. With years of experience under their belt, their team of...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Taica will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Taica manufacturers Alpha-GEL brand silicone components and materials, which maintain outstanding performance over a wide temperature range -40C to +200C. For more information, visit http://www.taica.co.jp/english/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale, a leading provider of systems and services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale has been involved in shaping the computing landscape. They've designed, developed and deployed some of the most important and successful systems and services in the history of the computing industry - internet, Ethernet, operating s...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM has been named “Diamond Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st Cloud Expo, which will take place on October 31 through November 2nd 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, California.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale is the leading provider of Software-Defined Servers that bring flexibility to modern data centers by right-sizing servers on the fly to fit any data set or workload. TidalScale’s award-winning inverse hypervisor technology combines multiple commodity servers (including their ass...
Join IBM November 1 at 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and learn how IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Cognitive analysis impacts today’s systems with unparalleled ability that were previously available only to manned, back-end operations. Thanks to cloud processing, IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Imagine a robot vacuum that becomes your personal assistant tha...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
As popularity of the smart home is growing and continues to go mainstream, technological factors play a greater role. The IoT protocol houses the interoperability battery consumption, security, and configuration of a smart home device, and it can be difficult for companies to choose the right kind for their product. For both DIY and professionally installed smart homes, developers need to consider each of these elements for their product to be successful in the market and current smart homes.
Infoblox delivers Actionable Network Intelligence to enterprise, government, and service provider customers around the world. They are the industry leader in DNS, DHCP, and IP address management, the category known as DDI. We empower thousands of organizations to control and secure their networks from the core-enabling them to increase efficiency and visibility, improve customer service, and meet compliance requirements.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend 21st Cloud Expo October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, CA, and June 12-14, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software. They hope to capture value from emerging technologies such as IoT, SDN, and AI. Ultimately, irrespective of the vertical, it is about deriving value from independent software applications participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kausik Sridhar, founder and CTO of Pulzze Systems, will discuss how given the magnitude of today's applicati...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that mruby Forum will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. mruby is the lightweight implementation of the Ruby language. We introduce mruby and the mruby IoT framework that enhances development productivity. For more information, visit http://forum.mruby.org/.
Digital transformation is changing the face of business. The IDC predicts that enterprises will commit to a massive new scale of digital transformation, to stake out leadership positions in the "digital transformation economy." Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, Oct 31-Nov 2, will find fresh new content in a new track called Enterprise Cloud & Digital Transformation.
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp emp...
In a recent survey, Sumo Logic surveyed 1,500 customers who employ cloud services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). According to the survey, a quarter of the respondents have already deployed Docker containers and nearly as many (23 percent) are employing the AWS Lambda serverless computing framework. It’s clear: serverless is here to stay. The adoption does come with some needed changes, within both application development and operations. Tha...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of enterprise storage for the hybrid cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere delivers a more modern architectural approach to storage that doesn't require the overprovisioning of storage capacity to achieve performance, overspending on expensive storage media for inactive data or the overbui...