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XML, Ontologies, and the Semantic Web

XML, Ontologies, and the Semantic Web

If [computer networking] were a traditional science, Berners-Lee would win a Nobel Prize," Eric Schmidt, CEO of Novell, once commented. Indeed, Tim Berners-Lee revolutionized the world when he created the Web in 1991. Now, he is talking about the second generation of the Web, and his talks are generating buzz...the W3C is establishing standards for it, and universities, companies, and industry consortiums are building the technologies necessary for it. He refers to it as the Semantic Web.

The Semantic Web is envisaged as a place where data can be shared and processed by automated tools as well as by people. The key lies in the automation and integration of processes through machine-readable languages. In order to leverage and link the vast amounts of information available on the Web, software agents must be able to comprehend the information, i.e., the data must be written in machine-readable semantics. For example, whether I use the tag <dead> or the tag <alive> next to a person's name in my XML document makes no difference to the parser. Some additional semantics or metadata must be added in order for a software program to make an intelligent assessment of the state of the person. This metadata, or meaning (versus display), of information is what is known as semantics.

Let's consider an example illustrating the advantages of having semantics that add meaning to information on the Web. Say you live in New York and decide to attend a conference in London. You would have to go to many airline Web sites and look at all flights leaving from New York to London. Then, you would go to various hotel Web sites and look for a hotel near your conference location that has a room available. That's a fair bit of searching. Luckily, you can search for the information on the Web, and in most cases you can pay for everything on the Web.

Now imagine another scenario: you're driving down 5th Avenue in Manhattan. Your secretary calls you on your cell phone and says that you've been invited to be the keynote speaker at a conference in Europe on May 5, 2003. You think that's great, and you begin to make plans for your trip. You flip open your Palm Pilot, which is connected to the Web, and you type in some commands: book flight and return from New York to London, May 5-11; book room in hotel near the conference location, Hilton London Metropole, in London.

Your Palm Pilot has a software program or software agent that understands your commands; it processes the semantics of your command intelligently. Your agent buys your ticket and books a room in a hotel. As you drive into your garage, your Palm Pilot beeps and asks you to confirm the information. You park your car, confirm the bookings, and then go inside. This is just one example of how easy life gets when the Web is an intelligent partner in your universe.

Ontologies for Knowledge Representation
In order for computers to be more helpful, the Semantic Web augments the current Web with formalized knowledge and data that can be processed by computers. To be able to search and process information such as airline flights, software programs need information that has been modeled in a coherent manner. An ontology models all the entities and relationships in a domain.

Continuing with our example, let's create a hypothetical ontology for Virgin Atlantic's flights. An ontology for the airline industry would model its metadata using the following semantics (in italics):

A flight has an origin, destination, flight number,
departure time, arrival time, class {attributes}
A international flight is a type of flight {inheritance}
A flight can have one origin {one-to-one association}
A flight can have many classes {one-to-many association}

In other words, ontology captures the attributes of an entity and inheritance relationships as in object-oriented programming; it also captures associations such as cardinality as in relational databases (see Figure 1).

The specific information or instance of this metadata for a particular flight may be as follows:

Flight Number: VS018
Origin: New York (EWR)
Destination: London (LHR)
Departure Time: 08:20, May 5, 2003
Arrival Time: 20:00, May 5, 2003
Class: Economy

With these semantics, you can type the following commands for your software agent:

flight origin: "New York" destination: "London"
departure: "May 5, 2003" arrival: "May 5, 2003"

Without a standard naming convention for concepts such as destination, your software agent cannot present your commands to Virgin Atlantic's server. In addition, it is important that British Airways' server understands these semantics as well so that you can search for tickets on that airline. When you model the concepts in a domain, such as the airline industry, and publish them, you are in essence creating an ontology.

The Semantic Web Architecture
Now that we've discussed both the vision of the Semantic Web and the necessity of ontologies for knowledge representation, we'll explore the implementation of the model.

There are several important steps in the workflow of the example we discussed above:
1.   Modeling the specifics of a resource such as Virgin Atlantic flight VS018 from New York to London. For this, we will discuss Resource Description Framework (RDF).
2.   Modeling the concepts of the entire airline industry. Here we'll consider Web Ontology Language (OWL) and how to map one ontology to another.
3.   Trusting that the information provided by an airline or a ticket broker is correct. We'll discuss digital signatures as well as an application for a trusted community known as Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF).
4.   The first three points consider information and its validity, but what about the mechanics of sending commands and receiving results? This involves a discussion of software agents and Semantic Web services, an extension of Web services.

An excellent starting point for any discussion of the architecture of the Semantic Web is Tim Berners-Lee's diagram shown in Figure 2. Discussing the different layers of the diagram will take us through the implementation of our example.

Unicode and Uniform Resource Identifier
The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) forms the foundation of the Semantic Web. The URI provides a unique identifier for any Web resource, and even for any object outside the Web; for example, a person can have a URI. The Semantic Web names every concept by a URI, thus letting anyone express new concepts with minimal effort and allowing definitions to be qualified by their sources.

Keeping Unicode as a foundation allows for the multiplicity of languages in which information is marked up throughout the globe. Unicode supports multilingual characters in a 40,000 character charset.

XML, Namespaces, and XML Schemas
Due to its flexibility, ability to be manipulated programmatically, and expressive power, XML (along with its associated technologies such as namespaces and schemas) is the most suitable language for a semantic language. The first contribution XML made to the Web was to separate content from representation; in the next iteration, XML is used to add metadata or meaning to content. Currently, the W3C is working on two main XML-based standards for the Semantic Web: Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL). Once these standards become fully functional, parts of the Semantic Web should start to come together.

Resource Description Framework
RDF is one of the cornerstones of the efforts made in the direction of the Semantic Web. It is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web and its syntax is XML. RDF represents a data model or metadata, i.e., a common framework for expressing information that can be shared across applications. According to the W3C, RDF represents information "by generalizing the concept of a 'Web resource.'"

The RDF framework is built on three pillars:
1.   Resource: Anything that can have a URI; this includes all the Web's pages, as well as individual elements of an XML document. An example of a resource is http://www.example.org/flight.
2.   Property: A resource that has a name and can be used as a property, for example, Origin or Destination.
3.   Statement: Comprises the data model for RDF and consists of the combination of a resource, a property, and a value. For example, if the resource is "VS018", the property is "Origin", and the Value in this statement is "New York".

Virgin Airlines stores the information about flight VS018 from New York to London in XML-based RDF in the manner shown in Listing 1. The RDF in Listing 1 describes our flight from New York to London very accurately, but what if you're going to another conference in San Diego in June and you want to search for a flight to San Diego? Software agents require that similar concepts be described in the same manner in order to search information efficiently. In other words, each industry has to design the metamodel of the information pertinent to its domain. This calls for a schema to constrain and formalize the language of the RDF, i.e., to specify what constitutes a generic "flight." For the Semantic Web, we can use RDF schemas, or even better, we can use the OWL to model ontologies written in RDF.

Web Ontology Language
OWL is the XML Schema for RDF; OWL allows the definition of new vocabularies and ontologies that are written in RDF. According to the W3C, OWL is "intended to provide a language that can be used to describe the classes and relations between them that are inherent in Web documents and applications." Just as RDF has triplets of subject, predicate, and object, OWL has classes and properties and constraints on the way those classes and properties can be employed. A set of OWL assertions loaded into a reasoning system is called a knowledge base (KB). OWL is used to publish and share ontologies on the Web.

Let's look at our example and discuss inheritance, cardinality, and association. One example of a class is Flight. A Flight class has properties such as Number, Origin, Destination, Departure, Arrival, and Class.

Namespaces are used at the top of the .owl file to specify the origin of the various vocabularies used in the document.

xmlns = "http://www.example.org/flight#"
xmlns:owl = "http://www.w3.org/2002/7/owl#"
xmlns:rdf = "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:rdfs= "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:xsd = "http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#">

Once namespaces are established we begin with an assertion that what follows is an OWL ontology.

<owl:Ontology rdf:about="http://www.example.org/flight">

The most basic concepts in a domain should correspond to classes that are the roots of various taxonomic trees. Every individual in the OWL world is a member of owl:Thing. Thus each user-defined class is implicitly a subclass of owl:Thing. Domain-specific root classes are defined by simply declaring a named class. For our sample contacts domain, we create one root class: Flight.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="Flight"/>

Say we want to divide our flights into international and domestic flights. Hence, InternationalFlight will be a subclass of Flight. We express this in OWL in the following manner:

<owl:Class rdf:ID="InternationalFlight">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Flight" />

Properties are used to make assertions about classes. There are two types of properties: object and datatype. Properties can express constraints between elements. Two kinds of restrictions that can be used are the domain of a property and the range of a property.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="flightsPerDay">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#InternationalFlight"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Integer"/>

We're defining a property that specifies how many flights per day occur for an international flight, and the property is restricted to an Integer.

It's possible to specify the type of association in terms of cardinality between two entities. In our example, we note that there is a restriction on the property flightsPerDay for an international flight, which says that there is only one international flight per day. This is important information for a software agent that is searching for options on which flight to get for the New York to London leg.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="InternationalFlight">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Flight"/>

<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#flightsPerDay"/>

Ontology Mapping
The key to ontologies is that they can be shared and therefore increase efficiency and interoperability. However, it is sometimes the case that two different organizations have two different names for the same concept, i.e., the ontologies are different. In such cases, the ability to map RDF schemas or ontologies is crucial to maintaining the advantages of the Semantic Web.

In OWL, there are several constructs that can be used for ontology mapping. Two of these attributes are sameClassAs and samePropertyAs - they indicate that a particular class or property in one ontology is equivalent to a class or property in another ontology.

Say, for example, that British Airways calls a flight by the class name "AirJourney" while Delta refers it as "Flight". How can a software agent know that the two mean the same thing (and recall that semantics are about concepts and meanings)? Ontology mapping between the British Airways and Delta ontologies is required. An example is shown below.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="Flight">
<owl:sameClassAs rdf:resource="AirJourney"/>

Web of Trust
We can model the information, but how do we trust the information that we get from the Semantic Web, and how do we protect our information? If my software agent finds two travel agents, and one says the price for a Virgin Atlantic ticket is $180 while the other says the price is $210, whom do I believe? In the Semantic Web, we depend on digital signatures and community networks.

Digital signatures
Digital signatures are necessary to ensure that the information that claims to be coming from a source was not tampered with before it got to you, and that its origin was indeed the named source. Based on mathematics and principles of cryptography, digital signatures allow signed RDF documents to be trusted. According to the W3C, "The combination of metadata and digital signature capabilities will aid in building a genuine Web of Trust."

Digital signatures address the problems of message integrity, data origin authentication, signer authentication, and nonrepudiation of sending a message. Furthermore, signed XML combined with the RDF will provide a layer of authentic metadata that will improve search engine capability, support intelligent software agents, and create new ways of cataloging information for improved navigation.

FOAF (Friend of a Friend)
Even if we could verify that the information did come from a particular source, how would we decide whether to trust that source? One way is to trust sites that have been verified as trustworthy by organizations or even a community of your friends. The latter thought was the impetus behind the Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) idea.

FOAF falls under the rubric of social networking. The FOAF vocabulary allows you to specify the information necessary for membership to a community, such as name and e-mail address. However, you could augment this information to find out about the interests of other members, or even, in line with our argument above, to gather information regarding which site to trust.

FOAF provides one opportunity to build a prototype of the "Web of Trust" that Berners-Lee refers to in his Semantic Web roadmap.

Software Agents and Semantic Web Services
Ontologies comprise the knowledge representation component of the Semantic Web, but it is incomplete without software programs that can communicate with each other. We still need a mechanism by which a software agent goes to Virgin Atlantic and requests information on flights to London from New York on May 5, 2003.

The best application for invoking other applications on the Web using request parameters is Web services. Web services is a layer of abstraction above software programs and allows services to be located and invoked across the Web. Programs written in various programming languages on different platforms can call each other using the Web services interface. The services offered by a company are published in a public registry that's used to locate them. Method invocations and results are communicated using the Web services messaging framework. Web services is important for universal interoperability and integration and will be the key enabler for software agents in the Semantic Web.

There are three main standards for Web services: WSDL (Web Service Description Language), an XML-based syntax that describes the functions provided by a Web service; UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration), an XML-based syntax used to develop a registry of services that can be published on the Web; and SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), the most common protocol for carrying the messages that invoke Web services. Using Web services, Virgin Atlantic can publish its services in a registry and anyone who wants to call a find flight command can send a message to invoke the method published in its registry.

DARPA (Defense Advance Research Projects Agency) has been working on an extension of Web services known as Semantic Web services. Semantic Web services have a declarative, machine-readable API for services. The API would inform the agent of how to use the service, which parameters to provide, and what results will be returned. So Semantic Web services are an enhanced version of Web services; they formalize the language in which we describe and call Web services. DARPA has developed DAML-S, an ontology or semantics for describing the properties and capabilities of Web services. DAML-S sits at the application level above WSDL and describes what is being sent as opposed to describing only how it is being sent (which is the functionality provided by WSDL). In other words, DAML-S will complement WSDL.

Using DAML-S, the user will not have to specify the Web service that it wants; the software agent will be able to discover the capability required by the consumer by looking at the declarations of the capabilities advertised by the marked up Web services. Next, it will compose tasks itself, i.e., it will both find the flight and buy the ticket for it (the composition of complex tasks is not possible with the current state of Web services). Semantic Web services would, therefore, greatly enhance the capability of software agents to search for particular services and are an important step in the direction of implementing the Semantic Web.

Present Efforts and Future Directions
The Semantic Web is the second-generation Web. It weaves together a network of information, which allows more efficiency, greater knowledge-sharing, and ease of use. Ontologies are the key to this interoperability because they determine the language software agents will need to communicate with each other and humans will need to communicate with the agents. As we have seen in this article, the semantics necessary for ontologies are written in XML, or more specifically RDF and OWL using XML syntax.

There are three factors necessary for the success of the Semantic Web: first, the establishment of standards by the W3C; second, the development of technologies that facilitate the implementation of software agents and other aspects of Berners-Lee's vision; and third, the production of tools that encourage people to adopt the technologies that will facilitate the universality of the Semantic Web.

The W3C, led by Tim Berners-Lee and Eric Miller, has made great progress in the standards established for the Semantic Web. In 2002, several new recommendations and working drafts have emerged for OWL and RDF, the two main standards for the Semantic Web. Detailed examples and guides are provided for users who want to mark up their information on the Web.

Technologies such as Web services and digital signatures are just two examples of relatively recent developments that will greatly facilitate the implementation of the Semantic Web. Examples of implementations include Music Brainz (www.musicbrainz.org), which provides an encyclopedia of music marked up in RDF; Friend-Of-A-Friend (http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1), which uses RDF to mark up the identity of community members and provides a basis for a Web of trust; and Retsina Calendar Software Agent (www.softagents.ri.cmu.edu/Cal), which is an agent developed for calendar scheduling by Carnegie-Mellon University.

Regarding encouraging people to mark up their Web information, I tend to agree with James Hendler, Professor at the University of Maryland and a prolific writer on the Semantic Web, that "ideally, most users shouldn't even need to know that Web semantics exist." Tools must be constructed that automatically pop up forms for ontology linkages in order to overcome the initial hesitation that people have in learning semantic markup languages. DARPA is funding a number of such free tools so people will mark up their Web pages. One example is an ontology editor, Protégé, developed by Stanford University, which is free and available for download from the Stanford Web site.

Of course, we have spoken of more than just individual Web pages; in our hypothetical example, we considered the importance of ontologies and these are usually developed by industry consortiums. Luckily, creating ontologies is something that is already underway. Many industries have realized that they need industry standards to facilitate inter- and intra-firm communication. One example of this is FpML (Financial Product Markup Language), an ontology for financial instruments written in XML syntax. Its goal is to establish a representation of concepts - an ontology - for all financial trading firms to be able to use for their trading purposes. If industry consortiums that are creating ontologies in XML instead write them in RDF, which is an XML-based syntax, they will have taken the first but important step toward creating the Semantic Web.

These efforts all point to the growing importance, and in my mind, the inevitability of the establishment of the Semantic Web. Just because it sounds like science fiction doesn't mean it's impossible. The Semantic Web is an incredibly exciting and potential place for developers to work. It will revolutionize the way we interact, live, and do business today. If you have seen movies like The Matrix and Minority Report, you've glimpsed the new kind of artificial intelligence that uses the Web to process information rapidly and automatically. Who knows? One day, you might very well be able to just speak to your small Palm Pilot or laptop instead of typing in the commands. Even today, companies such as IBM produce simple voice recognition software that allows you to speak to your computer. The key is that the computer needs a defined set of semantics for it to understand your commands and be able to communicate with other software programs on the Web. For now, the W3C is defining standards, new technologies like Web services and XML Schemas have emerged that will make the transition easier, and industries and companies are focusing on making better models to represent their knowledge.

I predict that industries will develop ontologies that will be used for their internal communication. Eventually, each industry such as financial services, retail, and shipping will merge its internal ontologies and represent a coherent protocol for communication with its systems. At that point, the Semantic Web will evolve from existing in pockets to becoming a universal infrastructure. Eventually, with increasing unambiguous markup of Web content, the Semantic Web will evolve to Tim Berners-Lee's vision as "an extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation."


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  • Resource Description Framework: www.w3.org/RDF/
  • Dumbill, Ed. (2000). "The Semantic Web: A Primer": www.xml.com/pub/a/2000/11/01/semanticweb
  • Palmer, Sean B. (2001). "The Semantic Web: An Introduction": http://infomesh.net/2001/swintro
  • Web Ontology Language (OWL) Guide (Version 1.0, W3C Working Draft 4 November 2002): www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-owl-guide-20021104
  • Semantic Web Activity: Advanced Development: www.w3.org/2000/01/sw
  • Cowles, Paul. (2002). "Web Services and the Semantic Web." Web Services Journal. December: www.sys-con.com/webservices/article.cfm?id=419
  • Hendler, James. (2001). "Agents and the Semantic Web." IEEE Intelligent System. Number 2.
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  • DARPA Agent Markup Language: www.daml.org
  • "DAML-S: Web Service Description for the Semantic Web" by The DAML Services Coalition. The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), Sardinia (Italy), June 2002: www.daml.org/services/ISWC2002-DAMLS.pdf
  • McIlraith, S.; Son, T.C.; and Zeng, H. (2001). "Semantic Web Services." IEEE Intelligent Systems. March/April: www.daml.org/services/ieee01-KSL.pdf
  • Dumbhill. Ed. (2002). "XML Watch: Finding Friends with XML and RDF." IBM developerWorks. June: www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/ xml/library/x-foaf.html
  • More Stories By Ayesha Malik

    Ayesha Malik is a Senior Consultant of Object Machines, a software engineering firm providing Java technology and XML solutions to businesses. Ayesha has worked extensively on large XML and messaging systems for companies such as Deutsche Bank and American International Group (AIG). Most recently, she has been researching new ways to make schemas extensible and object-oriented.

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    Most Recent Comments
    chouik fatima 05/10/03 10:51:00 AM EDT

    je etudiante en informatique option intelligence artificielle , Mon projet de fin d'etude est :web semantique;
    et j'ai besoin d'informations concernant l'ontologie, et surtous comment l'appliquer pour un domaine donn

    Bill Swartz 02/13/03 12:32:00 PM EST

    The article adds confusion, not insight, to the subject (herein abbreviated as ISO). In general, the author needs to learn more about the meanings of the terms data, metadata, information, concept, and knowledge. I admit that this is difficult - there is widespread confusion over the most useful meanings of these terms. But this state of affairs makes it even more important for authors in the popular press to do this hard work so they do not exacerbate the problem. Also, the author repeatedly confuses standard data and object modeling with the "new" semantic modeling. The reader who is familiar with ER modeling and OOAD is left with the impression that ISOs are fundamentally nothing new, when in fact they are. Of course, not everything stated in the article is incorrect, but too many of the fundamental ideas expressed are incorrect: I urge the publisher to retract this article before it does more damage. Some specific corrections:
    1. The SWeb is not distinguished as a place where "data can be shared and processed by automated tools". All information systems do that.
    2. ISOs are not distinguished by the "automation and integration of processes". That's what all information systems do. In general, ISOs include modeled concepts (not just entities or objects) in a domain, their relationships, and a logic with which inferences can be made on those concepts and relationships. The article neglects a defining element of ISOs - the presence of logical inference which allows information to be deduced which is not explicitly modeled in the ISO. This is one of the key extensions of ISOs beyond data and object modeling. I am surprised that someone could publish an article on ISOs without understanding this.
    3. The equation of semantics with metadata is also confusing. In the data and information modeling world (a world that the author does not seem to be familiar with), metadata is not semantics. Most people who work with "metadata" understand it to be ancillary data that deals not with the meaning of terms in the business data, but with the source, quality, and rules about how it should be managed. Metadata is a very mature that pervades information systems work. The author does ISOs and metadata practitioners a great disservice by obfuscating these two fields.
    4. Semantics is not "meaning (versus display)". Semantics stands against syntax. All current information system processing - not just display - is based on the syntax of values and expressions. The distinction of ISOs, in this context, is that now information systems can use some semantics in their processing. The syntax/semantics distinction is described in introductory formal languages. What our community needs is a writer who understands the theoretical/academic material that underlies ISOs, and then express those concepts, using the vernacular, in popular forums such as XML Journal.
    5. An ontology is not distinguished as something that "models all the entities and relationships in a domain". First, no system is ever going to model ALL entities and r/s in a domain. This should say, "all that are, or are anticipated to be, of interest in a domain (and/or to a community of systems and people)." Another aspect of ISOs that the author should have become familiar with before writing an introductory article on ISOs is the distinction between upper and lower level ISOs. Upper level ISOs are attempts to model the philosophical notion of an ontology - i.e. they attempt to model all that is, without respect to any particular domain. Their usefulness is more controversial than lower (or domain level) ontologies, and they are part of one approach being studied to support interoperation of domain level ISOs. Cyc (http://www.cyc.com/) is a popular example of an upper level ontology.
    6. "model[ing] the concepts in a domain . . . and publish[ing] them" is not "in essence creating an ontology". Everyday for the last twenty or thirty years, info sys developers have been modeling domains without even having heard the word "ontology". Actually, they have not usually been modeling concepts, rather just entities and objects. As I hope the author will discover in further research, a concept is more than an entity and an object. For example, "believes" is a concept that can be modeled as a fundamental thing in an ISO, but it is not an entity or an object. See, for example, one of the precursors of the current ISO work in: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/CG.html.

    sadas 02/13/03 11:04:00 AM EST
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