Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Carmen Gonzalez, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz

Related Topics: Microservices Expo

Microservices Expo: Article

Building SOA with Tuscany SCA

A simple service-oriented infrastructure

Many articles have already been written about service-oriented architecture (SOA) and Service Component Architecture (SCA), for example, see references [1] and [2]. In this article we'll focus on a freely available, open source implementation of the Service Component Architecture that provides a simple way to implement SOA solutions. This SCA implementation is being developed in the Apache Tuscany Incubator project. The project started in 2006 and is being used by many who are looking for a simple SOA infrastructure. The recent Tuscany SCA version 1.0, which was released in September 2007, supports the Service Component Architecture specifications 1.0. In addition to implementing the SCA specifications, Tuscany is also a nursery for new ideas. Some of these ideas will find their way into the specifications and some will be regarded as extensions available in Apache Tuscany Incubator. For example, support for Ruby, JavaScript, XQuery, data binding and Web 2.0 are currently extensions beyond the specification.

This article will walk you through what is available in Apache Tuscany Incubator and therefore highlight the benefits of SCA.

Using Tuscany SCA
A Common Approach to Application Construction and Deployment

Enterprise software development is increasingly influenced by technology choices, regulations, competition and expectations for responsiveness to change. Enterprises need the flexibility to adopt new business practices (like outsourcing of mortgage handling by a bank), enforce new regulations, and extend or down-size without much cost (mergers and acquisitions). In addition, as the complexity of the enterprise grows, a common management paradigm becomes a necessity for managing business applications. Service Component Architecture provides a simple programming model to address these challenges. SCA's simple language maps easily to the business. Let's consider we are building a banking application that handles account inquiries. Table 1 maps business-level questions to SCA.

SCA provides a consistent model of distributed applications and of the components from which they are constructed. This model explicitly separates business logic (Component/Services/References) from the details of how a running application is assembled (Composite/Wire) and deployed. This promotes a common terminology and supports a common understanding of the capability of applications and the way those applications work together. This common model also provides the hooks for tooling, governance, monitoring, and management in the service-oriented world.

When it comes to building a solution for real, one of the most important questions is likely to be "how can existing IT infrastructure and skills be used?" Tuscany SCA does not invent new technologies for component implementations (Implementation) and message exchange (Binding). It neither requires you to learn a new programming language nor communications protocols. You are free to leverage your existing investment in applications, technology, and skills as long as suitable support exists in Tuscany SCA. This is not much of a hurdle; Tuscany SCA has a straightforward extensibility model so new or proprietary technologies can easily be included.

The following sections describe Tuscany SCA in the context of three familiar scenarios. It should be noted that Tuscany SCA is not restricted to these scenarios. The sample code and configuration used here can be found in the Tuscany SCA Java distribution [3] and is available under the Apache License [4].

Enterprise Applications
In a typical enterprise, business functions are implemented using various technologies, business data is represented in different formats, and business applications communicate using heterogeneous protocols. It is almost impossible to converge all applications onto one technology stack such as Web services and so it remains difficult and costly to integrate different applications in an enterprise. Enterprises face many challenges including the following.

•  Business applications are tightly coupled with the IT infrastructure and early design decisions have to be made before real deployment.
•  Application developers are forced to learn and understand many technologies beyond business domain knowledge
•  Business logic is polluted and coupled to various technology-specific API calls imposed by the IT infrastructure. It's not easy to write and not easy to change.

SCA separates business services from the concerns related to specific hardware, software and network protocols by providing a unified programming model that allows the SCA runtime to handle these issues transparently. Let's look at a simple business scenario to see how Tuscany SCA can help enterprise application integration. The scenario here is the BigBank demo from the Tuscany SCA distribution [5]. As illustrated in Figure 1, the application comprises a number of assembled components and ultimately returns a total account balance in response to account inquires.

The use of the SCA programming model allows the BigBank developer to decouple the process of designing and creating the scenario from infrastructure concerns. In the BigBank composite, basic units of business logic are modelled as SCA components called AccountComponent, StockQuoteComponent, etc. Their business logic is implemented using Java and various scripting languages. Components are assembled by wiring references to services. Once all business logic is implemented, appropriate bindings are applied to references and services to indicate how the components should communicate.

The XML-based SCA configuration language describes all of the information about loosely coupled enterprise services and the bindings to be used. Since binding information can be changed in the SCA configuration without changing the business logic, the implementation code is not polluted with protocol handling information and, furthermore, bindings can be changed during deployment without impacting the application.

The following SCA configuration shows the AccountService exposed using JSONRPC (binding.jsonrpc) and Web services (binding.ws). The service can easily be made accessible over RMI by simply adding binding.rmi.

<component name="AccountServiceComponent">
    <implementation.java class="bigbank.account.AccountServiceImpl" />

    <service name="AccountService">
       <tuscany:binding.jsonrpc uri="/AccountJSONService" />
       <binding.ws
       wsdlElement="http://bigbank#wsdl.port(AccountService/AccountServiceSoap)" />
    </service>

    ...
</component>

The following SCA configuration shows bindings applied to component references. Again these bindings can be changed or augmented without changing the business logic.

<component name="AccountServiceComponent">
    ...
    <reference name="calculatorService">
       <tuscany:binding.rmi host="localhost" port="8099" serviceName="CalculatorRMIService" />
    </reference>

    <reference name="stockQuoteService">
       <binding.ws uri="http://localhost:8081/services/StockQuoteWebService" />
    </reference>
    ...
</component>

More Stories By Haleh Mahbod

Haleh Mahbod is a program director with IBM, managing the team contributing to the Apache Tuscany as well as SOA for PHP open source. She has extensive development experience with database technologies and integration servers.

More Stories By Raymond Feng

Raymond Feng is a senior software engineer with IBM. He is now working on the Service Component Architecture (SCA) runtime implementation in Apache Tuscany project as a committer. Raymond has been developing SOA for more than 4 years and he was a key developer and team lead for WebSphere Process Server products since 2002.

More Stories By Simon Laws

Simon Laws is a member of the IBM Open Source SOA project team working with the open source Apache and PHP communities to build Java, C++, and PHP implementations of the Service Component Architecture (SCA) and Service Data Object (SDO) specifications. Prior to this role he was working in the distributed computing space building service-oriented solutions for customers with a particular interest in grid computing and virtualization.

Comments (2) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
anonymous 03/12/08 06:13:08 PM EDT

SCA sounds a lot like CORBA..
or is it just me seeing this?

anonymous 11/11/07 09:28:46 PM EST

SCA = CORBA
CORBA = failure
SCA = ??

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Systena America will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Systena Group has been in business for various software development and verification in Japan, US, ASEAN, and China by utilizing the knowledge we gained from all types of device development for various industries including smartphones (Android/iOS), wireless communication, security technology and IoT serv...
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real r...
Five years ago development was seen as a dead-end career, now it’s anything but – with an explosion in mobile and IoT initiatives increasing the demand for skilled engineers. But apart from having a ready supply of great coders, what constitutes true ‘DevOps Royalty’? It’ll be the ability to craft resilient architectures, supportability, security everywhere across the software lifecycle. In his keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Jeffrey Scheaffer, GM and SVP, Continuous Delivery Busine...
In order to meet the rapidly changing demands of today’s customers, companies are continually forced to redefine their business strategies in order to meet these needs, stay relevant and continue to see profitable growth. IoT deployment and development is integral in this transformation, and today businesses are increasingly seeing the value of investing their resources into IoT deployments. These technologies are able increase ROI through projects such as connecting supply chains or enabling sm...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value S...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outscale, a global pure play Infrastructure as a Service provider and strategic partner of Dassault Systèmes, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2010, Outscale simplifies infrastructure complexities and boosts the business agility of its customers. Outscale delivers a secure, reliable and industrial strength solution for its customers, which in...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus intern...
Everywhere we turn in our industry we can find strong opinions about the direction, type and nature of cloud’s impact on computing and business. Another word that is used in every context in our industry is “hybrid.” In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Alvaro Gonzalez, Director of Technical, Partner and Field Marketing at Peak 10, will use a combination of a few conceptual props and some research recently commissioned by Peak 10 to offer a real-world consideration of how the various categories of...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, will motivate why realizing the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insigh...
Existing Big Data solutions are mainly focused on the discovery and analysis of data. The solutions are scalable and highly available but tedious when swapping in and swapping out occurs in disarray and thrashing takes place. The resolution for thrashing through machine learning algorithms and support nomenclature is through simple techniques. Organizations that have been collecting large customer data are increasingly seeing the need to use the data for swapping in and out and thrashing occurs ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that delaPlex will exhibit at SYS-CON's @CloudExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. delaPlex pioneered Software Development as a Service (SDaaS), which provides scalable resources to build, test, and deploy software. It’s a fast and more reliable way to develop a new product or expand your in-house team.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
SYS-CON Events announced today that EARP Integration will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. EARP Integration is a passionate software house. Since its inception in 2009 the company successfully delivers smart solutions for cities and factories that start their digital transformation. EARP provides bespoke solutions like, for example, advanced enterprise portals, business intelligence systems an...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs oft...
As cloud adoption continues to transform business, today's global enterprises are challenged with managing a growing amount of information living outside of the data center. The rapid adoption of IoT and increasingly mobile workforce are exacerbating the problem. Ensuring secure data sharing and efficient backup poses capacity and bandwidth considerations as well as policy and regulatory compliance issues.