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Java IoT: Article

Writing Classpath-less J2EE Clients...

...using a simple technique

Developing lightweight J2EE client applications that interoperate with multiple application servers can be difficult to do. Having to include an application server-specific JAR file along with a thin client application can significantly increase the size of the deployed application and make it too big to be practical.

In addition, client-side execution is tightly coupled using proprietary app-server extensions. This is especially true when mixing and matching multiple J2EE vendors together (such as a Tomcat servlet container communicating with a WebLogic EJB tier). Standard protocols, such as RMI/IIOP, are supposed to alleviate this problem. However, there is still no standard API or library that can be used across application servers without sacrificing native features, such as:

  • Clustering and high availability (including load balancing and failover)
  • Native communication protocols for optimal performance, such as socket multiplexing and efficient serialization (as opposed to standard RMI/IIOP)
  • Transaction management (including distributed transactions)
  • Security (JAAS, SSL transports)
  • Interoperability with previous and future versions of the application server
  • Lack of support for other J2EE features such as JDBC, and JMX
  • Specific JDK version requirements
This article presents a simple technique using URL classloading and reflection to build portable, ultra-thin Java client applications without adding anything in the classpath, while preserving all of the application servers' native features. (The source code for this article can be downloaded from www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.) Specifically, this article demonstrates how to:
  • Use the java.net.URLClassLoader to obtain Java resources from an HTTP connection to achieve dynamic class loading and automatic software distribution while maintaining a zero client footprint.
  • Invoke methods reflectively with the URLClassLoader and understand that the code is dynamically bound at runtime versus compile time.
  • Create high-bandwidth and small-memory footprint JVM applications deployed as thick-client applications and utilize this technique to obtain J2EE, XML, rich client libraries, and business rules from the server.
Listing 1 is an example of an ultra-thin J2EE client application invoking an HelloWorld EJB. It obtains an InitialContext from JNDI, looks up a home interface, creates the remote object, and invokes a method. Notice that there are no Java imports to J2EE APIs or dependent classes (HelloWorld objects) for compilation and execution. A URLClassLoader is utilized to retrieve the necessary class files via HTTP on demand. All of the application servers' functionality, such as the internal communication mechanism, security, transaction management, etc., are automatically downloaded and executed. This also applies to the user-defined application code, such as the HelloWorld client stubs and home interfaces.

High-Level Overview
One of the greatest features of the Java platform is the ability to dynamically download and execute Java code from a set of URLs to a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The result is that a remote system can run a program, for example, a thin J2EE client, which has never been installed on its disk. Using the java.net.URLClassLoader and reflection APIs, any JVM can download any Java resource, including RMI stubs, which enables the execution of method calls on a remote server using the server system's resources.

How It Works
The ThinClient.java program does not contain any imports other than the core J2SE APIs. It uses a URLClassLoader to load its Java resources (see Figure 1). The URL is a servlet (see Listing 2) that's deployed on an application server as part of an .ear file.

1.  The application server binds the HelloWorld EJB into JNDI. The ClassLoader servlet and Web application (see Listing 2) is deployed on the server and includes the HelloWorld_ejb.jar as part of the classpath. When resources are accessed from this servlet, it will serve classes from its .war, EJB classes, .ear, and System classpath. (Listings 2-5 can be downloaded from www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.)
2.  The thin J2EE client application uses the URL ClassLoader to load Java resources. The particular example in Listing 1 loads all classes using this classloader.

// set the context class loader to a URL ClassLoader
ClassLoader classLoader;
classLoader = new URLClassLoader(
new URL[] {


3.  The thin J2EE client application uses reflection to instantiate a hashtable to set up the InitialContext and performs a JNDI lookup operation reflectively. The URLClassLoader is used to download the application server's required classes for the lookup operation. The HelloWorld stubs are returned and executed on the thin client (see Listing 3).
4.  The thin J2EE client performs method calls via reflection to the server (see Listing 4).

Listing 2 contains the servlet code that loads the Java resources. In this particular example, the servlet is colocated with the application in the same J2EE container.

Java resources are accessed using the following syntax:


The extra path information:


is a hypothetical class called test.Example in the system classpath or part of the .war or .ear files.

Alternative Technologies
A client can access an application service several ways. For example, a client may use a proprietary protocol, RMI/IIOP, JMS, or Web services. Several advantages and disadvantages exist with each of these communication technologies, and choosing the most "optimal" client application design can be challenging.

Interoperability is one factor that comes to mind when choosing a communication mechanism. Both thin J2EE clients and Web services fit well in this model. Web services give clients the ability to interoperate with almost any type of system and application, regardless of the platform on which the system or application runs. The thin J2EE client approach is limited to Java, but allows conversational state, asynchrony, transactions, security, and high-availability performance.

Web services use HTTP as the transport protocol, enabling clients to operate with systems through firewalls. The service's WSDL document enables clients and services that use very different technologies to map and convert their respective data objects. For services and clients that are based on JAX-RPC, the JAX-RPC runtime handles this mapping transparently.

Listing 5 illustrates how to create a dynamic Web service using WSDL. Notice that there are only J2EE imports. It's very similar to the ThinClient.java example, in that the operation and service definitions are dynamically obtained.

More Stories By Bahar Limaye

Bahar Limaye is a system architect at The College Board. He has extensive experience building distributed object-oriented systems.

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