Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Java IoT Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: IoT User Interface

IoT User Interface: Article

Model-View-Controller and the Brave New World of Rich Internet Applications

Many Web developers haven't heard of MVC and try to design RIAs like they would design a typical HTML app

Canoo's Web 2.0 Technology Blog on Java, AJAX and Flex

Rich Internet Applications pick up the ball where plain Web applications dropped it: they promise to bring the power of desktop applications to the Web. Desktop applications almost went out of fashion with the advent of Web applications. But most people still prefer the rich user interface (UI) and interactivity of desktop applications such as Outlook compared to their Web-based siblings such as GMail and Yahoo! Mail. In many cases the convenience of ubiquity compensates for the inferior or cumbersome user interface.

MVC diagram

Client-server applications with rich user interfaces first emerged at the beginning of the nineties. Usually implemented in C++ or Smalltalk, they followed a fat-client approach, the predominant client-server architecture at this time. The principal way to organize the presentation layer of such applications was the MVC model. The concept was first proposed by Trygve Reenskaug (see http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~trygver/2007/MVC_Originals.pdf) for the Smalltalk environment. As with any proven object-oriented design, MVC splits up the responsibilities of a user interface component into domain data (Model), rendering (View), and event handling (Controller). Quite often, view and controller are merged together, though.

Today’s GUI component libraries still make use of MVC. For example, most non-trivial UI components in Swing employ some sort of MVC. However, if one tries to apply MVC to complex (form-based) applications, which is typical for desktop or Rich Internet Applications, experience shows that criteria such as clean design, maintainability, or reusability cannot be met. There are several reasons:

  1. What is the model of a form based application with a rich UI? Most developers point to the business object to be rendered in the form as the model. A form-based RIA has more model states than just the business object, though. This additional state is usually kept in the view class and increases the complexity of the view.

  2. The presentation logic of a Rich Internet Application is vastly more complex compared to a traditional Web application. The presentation logic has to deal with more events caused by extended interactivity. Another feature of RIAs is an up-to-date rendering of the presentation state. For example, UI components may be enabled/disabled or visible/invisible depending on the state of the application. This is also part of the additional model state as mentioned above. On top of that, RIAs feature instant validation (without interrupting a user’s flow of work by throwing a modal dialog into their face). This “silent” validation has to be handled (at least partly) by the presentation logic as well. Naïve design puts all of these aspects into the view class. As a result, the view class becomes overly complex, hardly reusable, and difficult to maintain.

  3. Automated testing of such view classes can only be accomplished by running the user interface. Tests are executed by triggering user events through a test tool or accessing the components through a library (e.g. Jemmy for Swing component library). This way of testing is slow and fragile: running hundreds or thousands of UI tests takes quite some time and changes to the user interface are likely to break the tests resulting in false negatives.

As a company specializing in RIA, we at Canoo have witnessed quite a few transitions from plain ugly Web applications to the brave new world of RIA. Some of our observations:

  • Typical Web developers have not heard of MVC and try to design RIAs like they would design a typical HTML application.

  • Seasoned developers who may have had some experience with fat client-server applications try to apply MVC concepts in the same way that they did in the nineties, without adapting to the new scenario.

Both approaches have their weaknesses and lead to poor results. In part two of this blog post series - “The world needs more models” - we will discuss possible remedies to this situation.

More Stories By Bruno Schaeffer

Bruno Schaeffer is Co-Founder & CTO of Canoo Technologies. Since 1997 he has been a Java developer, consultant, and architect. His areas of expertise are Web application platforms and Rich Internet Application technologies.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "First Containers & Microservices Conference" will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. The “Second Containers & Microservices Conference” will take place November 3-5, 2015, at Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
ThingsExpo New York is offering a limited time FREE "Expo Plus" registration option in New York. On site registration price of $1,95 will be set to 'free' for delegates who register during special offer. To take advantage of this opportunity, attendees can use the coupon code, and secure their registration to attend all keynotes, ThingsExpo sessions, expo floor, and SYS-CON.tv power panels. Special FREE registration givess access to all DevOps, Containers and Microservices sessions as well. Registration page is located at the ThingsExpo site.
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The only place to be Nov 3-5 is Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo | DevOps Summit 2015 West at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Join us there as delegates from all over the world come to listen to and engage with speakers & sponsors from the leading Cloud Computing, IoT, Big Data and DevOps companies. Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo are the leading events covering the booming market of Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data for the enterprise. Speakers from all over the world will be hand-picked for their ability to explore the economic strategies that utility/cloud computing provides. Whether...
DevOps Summit at Cloud Expo New York is offering a limited time FREE "Expo Plus" registration option in New York. On site registration price of $1,95 will be set to 'free' for delegates who register during special offer. To take advantage of this opportunity, attendees can use the coupon code, and secure their registration to attend all keynotes, @DevOpsSummit sessions at Cloud Expo, expo floor, and SYS-CON.tv power panels. Special FREE registration givess access to all Containers and Microservices sessions. Registration page is located at the DevOps Summit site. Your DevOps Summit registratio...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "First Containers & Microservices Conference" will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. The “Second Containers & Microservices Conference” will take place November 3-5, 2015, at Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
Health care systems across the globe are under enormous strain, as facilities reach capacity and costs continue to rise. M2M and the Internet of Things have the potential to transform the industry through connected health solutions that can make care more efficient while reducing costs. In fact, Vodafone's annual M2M Barometer Report forecasts M2M applications rising to 57 percent in health care and life sciences by 2016. Lively is one of Vodafone's health care partners, whose solutions enable older adults to live independent lives while staying connected to loved ones. M2M will continue to gr...
Akana, a leading provider of API Management, API Security and Cloud Integration solutions, announced that it is introducing DevOps automation to the API lifecycle. New capabilities in Akana's API Management platform significantly reduce the time required to update API definitions and versions. DevOps teams will be able to work faster in designing and developing APIs, as well as managing them at runtime and publishing them to a portal.
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it!
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
Imagine a world where targeting, attribution, and analytics are just as intrinsic to the physical world as they currently are to display advertising. Advances in technologies and changes in consumer behavior have opened the door to a whole new category of personalized marketing experience based on direct interactions with products. The products themselves now have a voice. What will they say? Who will control it? And what does it take for brands to win in this new world? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Zack Bennett, Vice President of Customer Success at EVRYTHNG, will answer these questions a...
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
“Connect2Me is basically a game changer in the IoT industry. We have created IoT connecter middleware that can enable a connection to any kind of device," explained Yasser Khan, CTO of Connect2Me, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
2015 predictions circa 1970: houses anticipate our needs and adapt, city infrastructure is citizen and situation aware, office buildings identify and preprocess you. Today smart buildings have no such collective conscience, no shared set of fundamental services to identify, predict and synchronize around us. LiveSpace and M2Mi are changing that. LiveSpace Smart Environment devices deliver over the M2Mi IoT Platform real time presence, awareness and intent analytics as a service to local connected devices. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Sarah Cooper, VP Business of Development at M2Mi, will d...
"Matrix is an ambitious open standard and implementation that's set up to break down the fragmentation problems that exist in IP messaging and VoIP communication," explained John Woolf, Technical Evangelist at Matrix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The basic integration architecture, as defined by ESBs, hasn’t changed for more than a decade. Most cloud integration providers still rely on an ESB architecture and their proprietary connectors. As a result, enterprise integration projects suffer from constraints of availability and reliability of these connectors that are not re-usable across other integration vendors. However, the rapid adoption of APIs and almost ubiquitous availability of APIs amongst most SaaS and Cloud applications are rapidly redefining traditional integration approaches and their reliance on proprietary connectors. ...
The world is at a tipping point where the technology, the device and global adoption are converging to such a point that we will see an explosion of a world where smartphone devices not only allow us to talk to each other, but allow for communication between everything – serving as a central hub from which we control our world – MediaTek is at the heart of both driving this and allowing the markets to drive this reality forward themselves. The next wave of consumer gadgets is here – smart, connected, and small. If your ambitions are big, so are ours. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jack Hu, D...