Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Java Authors: PagerDuty Blog, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski, Kyle Samani, Kathy Thomas

Related Topics: Java, MICROSERVICES, AJAX & REA

Java: Article

Book Excerpt: Introducing HTML5

HTML5 marks a groundbreaking change in how we interact with the browser

HTML5 is a draft specification for the next major iteration of HTML. It represents a break from its predecessors, HTML4 and XHTML. Some elements have been removed and it is no longer based on SGML, an older standard for document markup. HTML5 also has more allowances for incorrect syntax than were present in HTML4. It has rules for parsing to allow different browsers to display the same incorrectly formatted document in the same fashion. There are many notable additions to HTML, such as native drawing support and audiovisual elements. In this chapter, we discuss the features added by HTML5 and the associated JavaScript APIs.

Beyond Basic HTML
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), invented by Tim Berners-Lee, has come a long way since its inception in 1990. Figure 1-1 shows an abbreviated timeline of HTML from the HTML5Rocks slides (http://slides.html5rocks.com/#slide3).

Although all the advancements were critical in pushing standards forward, of particular interest to our pursuits is the introduction of JavaScript in 1996 and AJAX in 2005. Those additions transformed the Web from a medium that presented static unidirectional data, like a newspaper or book, to a bidirectional medium allowing communication in both directions.

JavaScript
JavaScript (née LiveScript and formally known as ECMAScript) started as a scripting language for the browser from Netscape Communications. It is a loosely typed scripting language that is prototype-based and can be object-oriented or functional. Despite the name, JavaScript is most similar to the C programming language, although it does inherit some aspects from Java.

Figure 1: HTML timeline

The language was renamed JavaScript as part of a marketing agreement between Sun Microsystems (now Oracle Corporation) and Netscape to promote the scripting language alongside Sun's Java applet technology. It became widely used for scripting client-side web pages, and Microsoft released a compatible version named JScript, with some additions and changes, because Sun held the trademark on the name "JavaScript."

AJAX
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) started a new wave of interest in JavaScript programming. Once regarded as a toy for amateurs and script kiddies, AJAX helped developers solve more complex problems.

At the epicenter of AJAX is the XMLHttpRequest object invented by Microsoft in the late 1990s. XMLHttpRequest allows a website to connect to a remote server and receive structured data. As opposed to creating a set of static pages, a developer was empowered to create highly dynamic applications. Gmail, Twitter, and Facebook are examples of these types of applications.

We are currently in the midst of another JavaScript renaissance, as the major browser makers have been using the speed of their JavaScript engines as a benchmark for comparison. JavaScript as a primary programming language has found its way into server-side web components, such as Node.js, and mobile application frameworks, such as WebOS and PhoneGap.

Bridging the Divide
Even the best of standards takes a while to gain uptake. As a means to not let the lack of features limit innovation, Google created Chrome Frame and Google Gears (later, simply Gears) to bring advanced features to older browsers.

Google Gears
Google Gears, which was initially released in May 2007, has come to define some of the advanced features of the HTML5 draft specification. Before the advent of HTML5, many applications used Gears in some way, including Google properties (Gmail, YouTube, Doc, Reader, and so on), MySpace, Remember the Milk, and WordPress, among others. Gears is composed of several modules that add functionality more typical of desktop applications to the browser. Let's take a moment and talk about some of its features.

In its first release, Gears introduced the Database, LocalServer, and WorkerPool modules. Gears' Database API uses an SQLite-like syntax to create relational data storage for web applications. The data is localized to the specific application and complies with generalized cross-site scripting rules in that an application cannot access data outside its domain. The LocalServer module enables web applications to save and retrieve assets to a local cache even if an Internet connection is not present. The assets to serve from local cache are specified in a site manifest file. When an asset matching a URL in the manifest file is requested, the LocalServer module intercepts the request and serves it from the local store.

The WorkerPool module helps address one of the prevalent problems with JavaScript-intensive websites: long-running scripts that block website interaction. A website by default has a single thread to do its work. This is generally not a problem for very short, bursty actions (such as simple DOM manipulation) that return quickly. Any long-running task, such as file input/output or trying to retrieve assets from a slow server, can block interaction and convince the browser that the script is unresponsive and should be forcefully ended. The WorkerPool module brought the concept of multithreading computing to the browser by letting your WorkerPool create "workers" that can execute arbitrary JavaScript. Workers can send and receive messages to and from each other, provided they are in the same WorkerPool, so they can cooperate on tasks. Workers can work cross-origin but inherit the policy from where they are retrieved. To account for the fact that several properties such as Timer and HttpRequest are exposed by the window object, which is not accessible to workers, Gears provides its own implementations.

Another API of interest is the Geolocation API. The Geolocation API attempts to get a fix on a visitor by using available data such as the IP address, available Wi-Fi routers with a known location, cell towers, and other associated data.

Google ceased principal development of Gears in November 2009 and has since shifted focus to getting the features into HTML5. Thankfully, all these features we've discussed found their way into HTML5 in some shape or form.

Chrome Frame
Chrome Frame is a project that embeds Google Chrome as a plugin for Internet Explorer 6 and higher versions, which have weak HTML5 support. Chrome Frame is activated upon recognition of a meta tag. Chrome Frame currently does not require admin rights to be installed, thus opening opportunities on systems that are otherwise locked down. You can find more information about Chrome Frame at http://code.google.com/chrome/chromeframe/.

Getting Things Done with WebSockets and Web Workers
One of the additions to HTML5 is APIs that help the web application communicate and do work. WebSockets allow web applications to open a channel to interact with web services. Web Workers permit them to run nontrivial tasks without locking the browser.

WebSockets
WebSockets allow applications to have a bidirectional channel to a URI endpoint. Sockets can send and receive messages and respond to opening or closing a WebSocket. Although not part of the specification, two-way communication can be achieved in several other ways, including Comet (AJAX with long polling), Bayeux, and BOSH.

Listing 1 shows the code to create a WebSocket that talks to the echo server endpoint. After creating the socket, we set up the functions to be executed when the socket is opened, closed, receives a message, or throws an error. Next, a "Hello World!" message is sent, and the browser displays "Hello World!" upon receipt of the return message.

Listing 1: WebSocket Code for Echoing a Message

var socket = new WebSocket(ws://websockets.org:8787/echo);
socket.onopen = function(evt) {  console.log("Socket opened");} ;
socket.onclose = function(evt) { console.log("Socket closed");} ;
socket.onmessage = function(evt){ console.log(evt.data);} ;
socket.onerror = function(evt) { console.log("Error: "+evt.data);} ;

socket.send("Hello World!");

Web Workers
Web Workers are the HTML5 incarnation of WorkerPools in Google Gears. Unlike WorkerPools, we don't have to create a pool to house our Web Workers. Listing 2 shows the code to create a simple worker and set a function for it to execute upon receipt of a message. Listings 1-2 and 1-3 show the HTML code for creating a web page with a Web Worker that displays the current date and time on two-second intervals.

Listing 2: Web Page for Requesting the Time

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>Web Worker example</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>The time is now: <span id="result" /></p>
<script>
var worker = new Worker('worker.js');
worker.onmessage = function (event) {
document.getElementById('result').innerText = event.data;
} ;
</script>
</body>
</html>

The associated JavaScript worker.js file is shown in Listing 3.

Listing 3: Worker.js File for Getting a Date and Time

setInterval(function() { w
postMessage(new Date());
} , 2000);

In the two listings, we see that workers can send messages using postMessage() and can listen for messages on the closure onmessage. We can also respond to errors and terminate workers by passing a function to onerror and executing terminate(), respectively.

Workers can be shared and send messages on MessagePorts. As with other aspects of the Web Worker spec, this portion is in a state of flux and somewhat outside the needs of the examples in this book. Therefore, using SharedWorkers is left as an exercise for the reader to investigate.

Application Cache
Application Cache provides a method of running applications while offline, much like the LocalServer feature in Gears. A point of distinction between the two features is that Application Cache doesn't use a JSON file, using a flat file instead to specify which files to cache. A simple manifest file to cache assets is shown in Listing 4.

Listing 4: Sample Application Manifest

CACHE MANIFEST
# above line is required, this line is a comment
mygame/game.html
mygame/images/image1.png
mygame/assets/sound2.ogg

The Application Cache has several events it can respond to: onchecking, error, cached, noupdate, progress, updateready, and obsolete. You can use these events to keep your users informed about the application's status. Using the Application Cache can make your game more tolerant to connectivity outages, and it can make your users happy by letting them start game play quicker (after the assets are cached). Also, if you choose, Application Cache can be used to allow users to play your game offline. Don't worry too much about it right now. In Chapter 11, "Publishing Your Games," we discuss using the Application Cache in more detail.

Database API
At present, there are multiple ways to store structured data using HTML5, including the WebSQL API implemented by Webkit browsers and the competing IndexedDB API spearheaded by Firefox.

WebSQL API
WebSQL provides structured data storage by implementing an SQL-like syntax. Currently, implementations have centralized around SQLite, but that isn't a specific requirement.

There isn't a "createDatabase" function in WebSQL. The function openDatabase optimistically creates a database with the given parameters if one doesn't already exist. To create a database name myDB, we would need to make a call in the form:

var db = openDatabase("myDB", "1.0", "myDB Database", 100000);

where we pass "myDB" as the name, assign the version "1.0", specify a display name of "myDB Database", and give it an estimated size of 100KB. We could have optionally specified a callback to be executed upon creation. Figure 2 shows the content of the Chrome Developer Tools Storage tab, after executing the preceding line of code.

Figure 2: Storage tab showing a created database

In the window to the right, we can run arbitrary SQL code, as shown in Figure 3, where we created a table, inserted some information, and ran a query.

Figure 3: Storage tab showing SQL statements

Although not universally supported, the specification does call out the existence of both asynchronous and synchronous database connections and transactions. Our current example creates an asynchronous connection; to create a synchronous one, we would call openDatabaseSync with the same parameters. After the initial connection, there is no distinction when it comes to database transactions besides calling transaction(...) for read/write transactions and readTransaction for read-only transactions.

A word of caution: Synchronous connections are not well supported and, in general, you should structure your code to run asynchronously.

IndexedDB API
IndexedDB stores objects directly in object stores. This makes it easier to implement JavaScript versions of NoSQL databases, like those of the object databases MongoDB, CouchDB, and SimpleDB. At the time of this writing, the implementations of the APIs weren't synchronized and used different naming schemes and strictness to the specification. The Internet Explorer implementation requires an ActiveX plugin. I encourage you to check out http://nparashuram.com/trialtool/index.html#example=/ttd/IndexedDB/all.html to see some examples in action on Firefox, Chrome, and Internet Explorer. The Chrome code in most cases will work seamlessly on Safari.

More Stories By James Williams

James Williams is an experienced developer and speaker who has given presentations all over the world on Java, user interfaces, and Google Wave. He is the creator of SwingXBuilder, a DSL for creating user interfaces using SwingX components, and a co-despot of Griffon, a framework to make rich applications using Groovy. James is based in the San Francisco Bay Area and you can follow his blog at http://jameswilliams.be/blog

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
After making a doctor’s appointment via your mobile device, you receive a calendar invite. The day of your appointment, you get a reminder with the doctor’s location and contact information. As you enter the doctor’s exam room, the medical team is equipped with the latest tablet containing your medical history – he or she makes real time updates to your medical file. At the end of your visit, you receive an electronic prescription to your preferred pharmacy and can schedule your next appointment.
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on Twitter at @MicroservicesE
The list of ‘new paradigm’ technologies that now surrounds us appears to be at an all time high. From cloud computing and Big Data analytics to Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and the Internet of Things (IoT), today we have to deal with what the industry likes to call ‘paradigm shifts’ at every level of IT. This is disruption; of course, we understand that – change is almost always disruptive.
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SafeLogic has been named “Bag Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo® New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. SafeLogic provides security products for applications in mobile and server/appliance environments. SafeLogic’s flagship product CryptoComply is a FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic engine designed to secure data on servers, workstations, appliances, mobile devices, and in the Cloud.
The WebRTC Summit 2014 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.
Wearable technology was dominant at this year’s International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) , and MWC was no exception to this trend. New versions of favorites, such as the Samsung Gear (three new products were released: the Gear 2, the Gear 2 Neo and the Gear Fit), shared the limelight with new wearables like Pebble Time Steel (the new premium version of the company’s previously released smartwatch) and the LG Watch Urbane. The most dramatic difference at MWC was an emphasis on presenting wearables as fashion accessories and moving away from the original clunky technology associated with t...
SOA Software has changed its name to Akana. With roots in Web Services and SOA Governance, Akana has established itself as a leader in API Management and is expanding into cloud integration as an alternative to the traditional heavyweight enterprise service bus (ESB). The company recently announced that it achieved more than 90% year-over-year growth. As Akana, the company now addresses the evolution and diversification of SOA, unifying security, management, and DevOps across SOA, APIs, microservices, and more.
GENBAND has announced that SageNet is leveraging the Nuvia platform to deliver Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) to its large base of retail and enterprise customers. Nuvia’s cloud-based solution provides SageNet’s customers with a full suite of business communications and collaboration tools. Two large national SageNet retail customers have recently signed up to deploy the Nuvia platform and the company will continue to sell the service to new and existing customers. Nuvia’s capabilities include HD voice, video, multimedia messaging, mobility, conferencing, Web collaboration, deskt...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cisco, the worldwide leader in IT that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cisco makes amazing things happen by connecting the unconnected. Cisco has shaped the future of the Internet by becoming the worldwide leader in transforming how people connect, communicate and collaborate. Cisco and our partners are building the platform for the Internet of Everything by connecting the...
Temasys has announced senior management additions to its team. Joining are David Holloway as Vice President of Commercial and Nadine Yap as Vice President of Product. Over the past 12 months Temasys has doubled in size as it adds new customers and expands the development of its Skylink platform. Skylink leads the charge to move WebRTC, traditionally seen as a desktop, browser based technology, to become a ubiquitous web communications technology on web and mobile, as well as Internet of Things compatible devices.
SYS-CON Events announced today that robomq.io will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. robomq.io is an interoperable and composable platform that connects any device to any application. It helps systems integrators and the solution providers build new and innovative products and service for industries requiring monitoring or intelligence from devices and sensors.
Docker is an excellent platform for organizations interested in running microservices. It offers portability and consistency between development and production environments, quick provisioning times, and a simple way to isolate services. In his session at DevOps Summit at 16th Cloud Expo, Shannon Williams, co-founder of Rancher Labs, will walk through these and other benefits of using Docker to run microservices, and provide an overview of RancherOS, a minimalist distribution of Linux designed expressly to run Docker. He will also discuss Rancher, an orchestration and service discovery platf...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Akana, formerly SOA Software, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo® New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Akana’s comprehensive suite of API Management, API Security, Integrated SOA Governance, and Cloud Integration solutions helps businesses accelerate digital transformation by securely extending their reach across multiple channels – mobile, cloud and Internet of Things. Akana enables enterprises to share data as APIs, connect and integrate applications, drive part...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Solgenia will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Solgenia is the global market leader in Cloud Collaboration and Cloud Infrastructure software solutions. Designed to “Bridge the Gap” between Personal and Professional Social, Mobile and Cloud user experiences, our solutions help large and medium-sized organizations dr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Liaison Technologies, a leading provider of data management and integration cloud services and solutions, has been named "Silver Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Liaison Technologies is a recognized market leader in providing cloud-enabled data integration and data management solutions to break down complex information barriers, enabling enterprises to make smarter decisions, faster.
Cloud is not a commodity. And no matter what you call it, computing doesn’t come out of the sky. It comes from physical hardware inside brick and mortar facilities connected by hundreds of miles of networking cable. And no two clouds are built the same way. SoftLayer gives you the highest performing cloud infrastructure available. One platform that takes data centers around the world that are full of the widest range of cloud computing options, and then integrates and automates everything. Join SoftLayer on June 9 at 16th Cloud Expo to learn about IBM Cloud's SoftLayer platform, explore se...
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the M2M space. This really allows some room for influential individuals to create more high value inter...